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Chris: So youre in for another treat if you enjoyed this mornings keynote presentation. We have another dynamite presentation coming up with David Seidel. David is the deputy education director at NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Youve heard him referenced or the work that they are doing referenced at least several times this morning. So youre now going to get to hear directly from him, from the birds eye view of what hes been seeing and doing over the last well, more than few weeks. But the last few weeks has been an amazing crescendo to the work that they are doing at NASA JPL. David is a former Education Advisor to the NASA Mars Public Engagement Team. Hes been at JPL for over 20 years and prior to joining NASA taught science at Beverly Hills High School and ran its planetarium. He earned a bachelors of art degree in geography from Cal State Northridge, so another CSU graduate, and a masters of science degree in science education from USC. David has received numerous group and individual achievement awards including the prestigious NASA Exceptional Service Medal. He served as JPLs lead NASA TV commentator and has also flown on NASAs Weightless Wonder Aircraft, otherwise known as the Vomit Comet. (Audience laughs). So hes also a contributor to the California Review of the NationalNext Generation Science Standards and also has participated on Tom Torlaksons and STEM task force along with myself. So Im really pleased and excited to welcome him to the stage and to take it away. (Audience claps). David Seidel: Oh, thanks Chris. We could save valuable time if you wouldve shortened that introduction a little bit. And I wanted to say that the reason we have two term limits is a 102 years is just way too long. And even if that was her first election, that what you voted but (audience laughs). Okay Ive never given a half an hour presentation and a half an hour before so well see how this goes. Let me call one person here, my counterpart from NASAs Dryden Fligh Research Center. Russ Billings, stand up so more than I can see you. (Audience claps). So as hopefully, youre aware theres three NASA facilities in the state of California. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory up in the foothills above the Rose Bowl, the Dryden Flight Research Center up at Edwards Air Force Base and also the Ames Research Center up in San Francisco Bay Area. So you should think of these as a several billion dollars of cash infusion to the Southern California and Central and Northern California economies. And its a part of your of tax dollar that actually returns on the investment through spin-offs and things like that. I want to thank Chris for sandwiching me between Doctor Mitra and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. Thanks a lot I will (audience laughs) appreciate that. I really enjoyed the presentation. Doctor Mitra where are you? Where he went? He went that way? Okay, well he never address where the 25% of the homing pigeons went that are not around which means that out there as we speak, there are flocks of feral pigeons doing who knows what. (Audience laughs). Okay, its a little more to the point though, JPL and the rest of NASAs, well were fundamentally learning organizations. So theyre built around the notion of curiosity and wanting to know more about the natural environment, learn about it. And when you come to a place like JPL, you may have been hired for your first job but that was just your first job. When that ends, youre going to be asked to do something else for which you have little or no training or preparation. So it kind of goes back to the computer on the wall I guess here where its like you figure it out and make the most of your opportunities. And so the most of successful JPLers are the project managers where everybody in management, both above and below, is working to their success because those are the missions. Thats what we do. So where those famous robotic exploration at the solar system but we also do deep space exploration and Earth. So about half of the missions that JPL flies is Earth, climate change, looking at the entire Earth system. And so when you hear about things like Iceland, Greenland losing ice, the answer to that if you look, well, how is that known? That probably has a spacecraft to thank for that and a series of other complementary observations. So in the case of Dryden and Ames Aeronautics Research as well, theres been a big debate about who killed the Human Space Flight program, Obama or Bush? The answer is neither one. We still have a Human Space Flight program for everyday, for the last 13 or 14 years, is between one and three Americans living and working in space. And right now, the commander of the International Space Station is an American woman. So nobody killed the program (giggles). So going to what Tom and Chris both mentioned about, Endeavour of saying, Endeavour fly around and seeing the drag through LA that last an extra day which was kind of spectacular. Theres a lot of things that are going on there in the news. We had that, we had Curiosity, we had is I think it was at theChris mentioned that its Skydive yesterday. All cool stuff. One of the root things for the Skydiveone of the advisors is Doctor Clark whose wife Laurel died on the Columbia accident. And the whole issue of high altitude ejection was it was the science of the suit that Felix Baumgartner wore. So the ejections capability that the shuttle used to have was level flight at low altitude. Thats not where they have the problem. So theres a lot of stand thats tied into that. But its not just that. Weve got dark energy. Weve got exoplanets, other stars. Its the stuff that you dont hear so much about or the kind of ballistic arc of news in Science. So something happens, its in the news and theyre nowhere to go. (Audience laughs). So the nice thing about the Endeavour is its the gift thats going to keep on giving because thats going to be on display. In the case of the Mars rover, same thing, because JPL stands are just plain lucky and our missions go on and on and on, and on and so (audience laughs). So its a 2-year mission but is going to go on considerably longer than that though. Alright, Im not a deep thinker. I had a good idea once but it died of loneliness (audience laughs) but I do know more about Mars and the rover than most people. So I should mention out that today is Sol 68. Theres an app for this, you can and Ill tell you where to go get it. And I wanted to point also that my presentation almost is entirely stuff you can build yourself. Now, when your [inaudible] says uploaded the presentation on to this CSL website and Im going to give her another document which is kind of my standard. Heres what you should know about NASA and JPL education. So Ill put that up there as a resource. Weve got a lot of stuff out there and youve to do a little digital archeology to find it and find what is right for you in your educational environment but Ill add that to the resources there for you. But Ive lifted stoneI mean liberated most of my slides from this site photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov. This is where all the good images go. And one of the things I have linked is we had a slash new to this and its whatever weve done on the last 7 days; Mars, the Asteroid Vesta, Earth system science, ozone, whatever it might be. The last seven image releases are up on that site. And the reason why I mentioned that when do I post my presentation is that you dont have to write these down or if you download the presentation. The presentation online is much better that this one. I actually had to trim a lot of stuff out of it and I shifted everything up for on the screen a little bit. So I encourage you to download my presentation like I said its much better than this one, the one Im actually giving. This image right here is from the other rover. So we still have a working rover. We have two working rovers now but the Opportunity rover that landed almost 8 years ago is still operating. So its all 3,102. It was designed to operate for 90 so that means were 3012 soles past the warranty in terms of Mars days. So, just plain lucky I guess. But theres a lotThis is an image on the last couple of weeks. So theres new science. We found a new type of blueberries. Theyre called newberries now of different process that created the ones what we thought we understood before. So theres a lot of sciences going on. So just real quickly, just looks like Arizona (audience laughs). Alright, this is a chart that I included mostly so you could download it and use it later but let me just highlight a couple of things. Mars is earthlike in some respects. So the day is 24 hours and 40 minutes long. The flight team is actually on Mars time so it sounds great like you can sleep an extra 40 minutes every morning. In fact, its like moving most of the time zone to the West each day and it starts to accumulate and drag on you. So about 3 months is about as long as you really can go effectively. But Martian dates, you know not a miserable if you think of it in terms of the day. Also the axial tilt on Mars is almost the same as Earth. So 23 degrees versus 25 degrees so that means that the seasons are the same as the seasons we have here except than in the past, Mars axial tilt or obliquity has changed very dramatically and ours hasnt. And thats probably important why were here and not there. Theres also some dramatic differences though. The gravity on Mars about 38% of what we experience here. The year is almost 2-Earth years long so the Curiosity mission is designed for one full Martian year almost 2-Earth years. And then heres the nasty stuff, so the temperature, the average mean temperature on Mars is -81 Fahrenheit. The atmospheric pressure is similar to what Felix Baumgartner had to deal with yesterday, about 7 millibars versus 1,013 which is normal sea level which is where we are here in San Diego, I know this. And less sunlight about 43% as much sunlight. And then the real nasty bit the fact the atmosphere is 95% CO2. So when you see the pictures that especially from Opportunity, when you look out on the landscape, the cameras on Opportunity are about the same height as us. So its really the view that youre going to get but you better be wearing your spacesuit. So its a dangerous environment in lots of respects. And one of our challenges is to learn more about it. So this is the new home of Curiosity. It landed a crater thats about a hundred miles across called Gale crater. Its named for an Australian amateur astronomer which is appropriate because Mount Sharp in the center, if you turn the picture around and look from above it, it kind of looks like Australia so works out. Little hard to see but theres in a black ellipse there which is the 99% assurance landing ellipse. And the little green line is our track where we going to climb the foothills of Mount Sharp. And we actually didnt land right in the center. We landed a little bit long but well within that ellipse. And were in a very nice piece of real estate there. But Mount Sharp shows clays at the bottom basically evidence of basalted rock that was soaking wet for a long period of time and then sulfate, its another hydrated mineral, its a little bit higher up. Above that is layer after layer after layer of dust. So we dont have to climb this mountain. So over the course of the prime mission and of course theyve got plans to extend the mission. Were going to climb up some boxed canyons and sample as we go and analyze as we go. The first rovers, were looking for the history of water on Mars so its Follow the Water. And we have some relative but not absolute numbers in terms of water. The big question is how much water for how long? How long itd go? Because that features back into life. So these are wet environments. The purpose for Curiosity, of course it has no purpose of its own, its our purpose projected unto it. Its we cant go so we send machines. This is a surrogate for representing human beings because its not coming back, is to look for habitability. Regions of Mars that actually were habitable in the past potentially by our conventional standards. And its not a biological set of experiments but we do have the ability to do some biological analysis but basically were looking for habitability. So my presentation is not the story of the Curiosity rover, thats been told. Its too hard to do in half an hour. So Ive got some sort of amusing tidbit elements to it I guess. This is showing our landing ellipse there in the center of that NSL landing ellipse. And it settles the Mars Science Laboratory whose name is Curiosity. And its a very small ellipse, theres a small footprint. And the other ellipses are previous missions and all the way to the outermost one which is Viking. So basically theres a circle 300 km x 300 km. across, you got a 99% chance youre going to land somewhere in that. Well that doesnt do you any good if youre going to be doing a moon base or Mars base where you need precision landing. You need all your parts to go to the same place at the same time. You cant be 80 miles off to one side or another. And the landing ellipse for Curiosity allowed us to go into this crater to the base of the foothills. No previous lander would have allowed us to do that. Theres plenty of terrain even for the last lander we have which was Phoenix few years back which would be unacceptable as a landing site. So weve come a long way and this is an elevation map from a previous orbiter, Laser Altimeter where blues are low and reds and whites are high. Something else to you need to worry about. This is from an orbiting spacecraft. Theres two US and one European spacecraft at Mars. So if you do the Math, theres five operating spacecraft at Mars. Theres objects in orbit or flying around, eight several planetary objects right now between United States and European Space Agency. And theres something like 60 operating spacecraft in space right now from NASAs Science Mission Director and the Earth Science folks right now. So nobody killed the space program, believe me. This is actually a picture of a dust storm taken, that was some concern, that had grown and move towards where the landing site was. It could have been issue. Not that we could have done anything about it. Once weve launched the spacecraft, we were committed to arrival pretty much precise time. This spectacular image where a dust storm looks like from the time and some high altitude cirrus clouds below called water ice clouds and then some craters and things like that. And the landscapes are the kinds of things we need to worry about. So this is the family of Mars rover. So Curiosity on the right weighs essentially a ton and is a size of a car. And the cameras are considerably higher than the Mars Science Exploration rovers. So in the center, Spirit and Opportunity, the Mars Exploration rovers in 2004. And on the left, the first rover which was Sojourner who went on board Mars Pathfinder 1997 is basically the size of a laser printer. So weve gone from this to the moving van essentially for carrying it around. And also, you can see that the rovers increase not only in size but also in capability. So rather than call out all of the instruments on board the rover let me just say, its got 17 cameras on board. So this is a mission designed to be photogenic. So how did it get its name? Well, student competittion. In fact, weve done a number of these. So some missions are named who knows what, some where have you know have numbers and descriptions, others are named after famous dead astronomers. This one actually is a student contest and Clara Ma who was a sixth grader at the time. Space missions take a while to evolve so now, shes going in hershes a sophomore in high school. But she named it and the idea that Curiosity is an eternal flame that burns in everyones mind makes me get out of bed in the morning and wonder what surprises life will throw at me at that day. Thats pretty much good description of most JPLers. (Audience laughs). Dont get me wrong. We work for a large government bureaucracy but every once in a while we land on Mars. (Audience laughs). Okay this is a frame of a movie of the heat shield falling away from the rover which has a camera in the front left corner thats pointing straight down. Now right now, its only about 2 feet off the ground but thefrom the top of the atmosphere and the heat shield separation, we have a high def movie going all the way down to the surface. Somebody interpollated it to make a full 30 frames a second, its on Youtube. This is a photograph taken at the heat shield right after it fell away. And it turns in the movie, you not only see the heat shield going away because out of the field of view but we actually have some frames of it hitting the surface and a little puff of dust, big puff of dust actually I should say if you were standing there. This is an image from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. We actually were able to do this when Phoenix was coming in for landers. They thought theyd try again. This is the orbiting spacecraft with the best camera ever flown to another planet tilted sideways so the camera would point at the parachute and the descent stage going down. So this is actually Curiosity on the way down during the so called Seven Minutes of Terror. And this is the really terrible part for the other components that where in the rover. So the upper left is the back shell with a parachute attached. Something I didnt mention is that JPL is operated not as a civil service center but as a federally funded research and development center on the contract of Caltech. So if you know anything about Caltech, the colors of the parachute might mean something to you. So its orange and white just that have to be some color, right? Okay, and the picture on the right is the descent stage which was the so-called Sky Crane which lowered it down to the surface. And the Sky Crane is the same size as the rover basically although not anymore. So heres the impact and there are no large pieces anymore. When the rover landed, it did an automatic sequence through the dust covers. Just take a couple of quick pictures and send it back just so we knew we landed. Although theres a chance we wouldnt have getgotten those pictures and turns out one of those actually captured the dust plume from the impact. So there you go. Pretty nifty picture here sorry itsyou should download it. It looks much better downloaded. Another reason to download it too is in the comment section on the Powerpoint, I list the URL to the photo journal image. So if you like that image, download the presentation and just follow URL and you could have it yourself. This is a self-portrait where the cameras can take a picture of the rest of the rover pretty much everything except the camera mast itself. But one of the instruments we have is at the end of the arm which actually can take pictures of the rover. So this is a self-portrait with the edge of the crater off in a distance there. As you can see, we didnt want to land there so didnt have to. And heres kind ofthis is enhanced forits sort of white balance, put some hands for contrast and some other thing. This is looking across the landscape at the foothills of Mount Shar and this is where were going to be going. So you can see that layering in there and theres these discontinuities where the landscape changes in terms of composition but we do some pretty spectacular images. This is an enhanced Mars Reconnaissance Oribiter image. Again, from orbit looking down, you can see where the jets for the descent stage actually disrupted the soil a little bit. And then heres our track where were rocketing across the surface. So its taken us couple of months to go a few hundred meters. So this is a marathon, not a sprint. The shuttle moved faster yesterday than it did. Then, those this rover goes. So I was thinking boy you know if there was a race, who would lose. (Audiene laughs) Something else about this site too is the landing site is kind of a sort of smooth rolling landscape of some craters on it. And then if you go to lower right hand corner, lots of impact craters. And if youre on the upper right corner, this is a brighter dust free high thermal inertia environmetnt. So were headed for this sort of triple point where the three different types of terrain all come together. Not our primary objective for the mission but hey, were over here, lets have a look. Something else too, I brought a prop that wasnt anything about having [inaudible]. Chris didnt say I could but he didnt say I couldnt either. So (audience laughs) this is actually a spare rover wheel. The reason why I know its spare it has got a property tag. This has got serial number 007. You want to guess what the other six are? (Audience laughs). And it says spare so its okay that I have this. Its basically milled out of a billet of aluminum. And then the hubs and the flexure systems are titanium inside. And it turns out, in order to be able to shed particles out from the wheels, they dont get caught in there, theres some holes in here and wouldnt you know if the whole pattern doesnt stamp out JPL in morse code everywhere we go. (Audience laughs). Its also a wheel odometry measures. So as we drive and we look back at the drive the previous day, we can count the number of imprints and we can compare the wheel odometry to the accelerometer, see if theres a bending slippage or slide [inaudible] like that. It was going to say JPL at one time but we didnt want to antagonize our NASA sponsors too much. So there you go. Besides being kind of cool and it fit in my car. The marwe have an inflatable Mars rover too thats not quite as dramatic. When you think about this and the rover, these images here represent millions of correctly-made decisions by creative thoughtful people, well-trained that thinking out of the box for which there was no right answer, at least no single right answer, plenty of wrong answers. So the kind of creativity and thoughtfulness that goes into this kind of process is something that I feel as an educator were trying to cultivate in our kids. Not just that it will come to JPL or Dryden or Ames and working in the state on important issues of exploration or national need, but because theyre going to have to vote on the rest of the items on the ballot, things like genetically-engineered food labels and so on that have a science and technology focused to them. And theyre either going to pursue scientific habits of mind or theyre going to vote the last commercial they saw. So its a larger compared to this org as Im concerned and just simply coming to work in STEM feels once they graduate I think Jeffersonian democracy requires that we have lived a technologically and scientifically literate at some level population. Right, this is a picture of the arm camera. So at the end of the arm is called the Mars Hand Lens Imager. Basically, it can be put down right next to rocks but it has got infinite focus as well. And its the kind of pinkish disc and has sort of a semi-circular dust cover. Its looking kind of straight at the camera. To the right are some brushes and then the most of the drillmost of the arm is actually impact hammer kind of what you can get at Home Depot except ours works on Mars. And so were going to pick up soil and hammer into rocks and then do analysis with some very sophisticated on board laboratories. Weve got x-ray refraction. Weve got gas to chromatograph mass spectrometry and alpha particle x-ray spectroscopy on the rover plus the cameras. Anything walks up to the rover, well get a picture of it. (Audience laughs). Okay, just a recent scientific discovery here. This is looks like what the [inaudible] do to the sidewalk. So weve got these layers that are pride up and on closer inspection, thats Mars on the left and Earth on the right. Weve got about 1-cm cobbles here. We basically have driven across the streambed, an ancient streambed. So, the rocks were jagged when they got their start but they were eroded by flowing downhill and being bounced along and rounded out. So of course, still back to the absolute questions of how long ago and for how long. But we know were in the right place, this area was warm and wet at one time. Okay, heres the part thats good for you as an educator. This URL here, its also in the program mars.jpl.nasa.gov/participate. We step out of here and go to that webpage real quick if I can. Okay, so first of all, how do I know what time it is on Mars? Well, theres little counter here. So its the 69th day on Mars, its 8:35 in the morning at the Curiosity landing site. But this Participate site is a way to connect to the instruction materials but also to find all the fun stuff. So when I say theres an app for that, thats literally true. Theres an Iphone applications. Theres also Be a Martian where you could follow along with the mission but you can also help made a tag Opportunity rover images. So theres an image and you take a look at it and you tag what you see, dust devils, craters, rocks, clouds, rocks, rocks, dust, rocks (audience laughs). You can participate that way. Theres some augmented reality tags on board where youll be able to point your Iphone at an image in front of the rover on your webpage and youll get additional information and data from that, information about Curiosity itself, Martian diaries are blogs basically from scientists and engineers involved in the project. Something interesting, theres a Codus Mars experience coming soon. Microsoft shares our concern. This will be the software. Students are not programming. They have apps that are ready to go. Outside of Iphone apps, theyre not in the programming and so Codus, a way of getting students interest and excited about programming. Spacecraft 3D, you download a target basically which is actually a test image from the Mars Hand Lens Imager. You print that out and then you have an image on your Iphone and you hold it over there, you can basically maneuver it around. You got a 3D maneuverable image of Mars rovers and some bunch of other spacecraft. Weve got Mars for Students and Mars for Educators, just instructional materials, posters, curriculum and so on. And basically your link to it is off of this Participate webpage. Okay, so my deep thought here for education. Ive only got one here. Its not that deep but its an observation. So, just a reflection on space exploration in general. So I like this image which has been around for quite a while within JPL. So on the left or lower part, theres a Mars Surveyor down there and its sort of 1950 spacesuit as you might imagine and an image of the canal is on Mars and [inaudible] what are they like. And in the upper right hand corner, that image then goes to a Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter image which basically a weather satellite image of Mars and more contemporary astronauts. So how do we get from point A to point B? So, my unresearched thought of the moment here is that teachers have grown up in a recent environment that isor a post-Watergate and post-Apollo environment. So lets characterize by two things, one is nostalgia, the other one is cynicism. So every president wants to be Kennedy. Well Kennedy wasnt even Kennedy if you go back and look at it. But every president has made a bold statement about space, none of which we followed. So, you cant do that anymore and theres a very good essay that NASAs former historian, Roger Launius wrote about thealong with the death of the imperial presidency was the ability to dream great things regarding space exploration. So nice try but its not going to work exactly. So its the cynicism about the space program. So another one is its very difficult to integrate scientific discovery into the classrom. So current events pop up periodically, if youre a big fan of our webpage is you learn about stuff. Theres no specific mechanism for being able to incorporate that into the curriculum. In fact, this probably going to push something else out of the way or aside, which is a challenge. Its not a new challenge but [inaudible]. English language, Arts and Math are important but theyre not simply skills so Im not going to dump on English language, Arts and Math. We actually took the approach for schools that where the environment where thewe know what the test scores are. Dont let me catch you teaching Science or Social Studies or the Arts or anything else, saying okay, if youre going to teach English language, Arts, lets learn about something and develop a curriculum package called Reading, Writing and Rings. It was done by one of our guys in our office. The Cassini Saturn Orbiter mission, that they are writing project and some others. Thats English language arts piece for grades 1, 2. Theres another module for grades 3, 4 which means they have remedial use for quite a bit longer. And itsall standards are English, language, Arts but theyre learning about Cassini, you know learning about Saturn. Theres a good pre and post in there as we took that approach. Weve also gone in the past into some of the standardized instruction materials for English language, Arts and found that there was a thing on Galileo in open quarter some place else, took a look at it and went oh my God, this isnt about Galileo at all. So, it mentions his name but theres no science in here, theres no context or anyting else. And so our approachwhat sort of hit me there was that what the students have, theyre learning to read as a process skill but they are not learning to read for pleasure. Their reading is essentially about nothing. You read the assignment, its not something that you found or that you were interested in. Its kind of the opposite of what Doctor Mitra was talking about. Its the students finding, its delivered to them. So theyre reading about nothing so theyre not reading for pleasure. And if theyre not reading for pleasure, then theyre not reading science fiction. So where did all those JPLers come from? It depends on how old you are. So its either the Colliers article that Wernher von Braun wrote with Willy Ley and Arthur C. Clarke in the 1950s or it was 2001 a Space Odyssey or it was Star Wars or it was some other kind of that. Theyre going and say see people rooting for their particular inspirational moment. (Audience laughs). So what is it today? So it wasnt just a matter of seeing the movie 2001, it was reading the book. It was reading Ray Bradbury. It was reading all these people who have this essentially futuristic view. So at the end of the day, students, myself and so the rest of the room I guess, were asked to expand our horizons, be on the horizon. So many of us that are working on the space program view rovers on Mars, people on Mars, colonies on Mars and beyond has an in ability that its going to take a while. You know theres going to be hardship on the way but its not a question of when. I mean it is a question of when, its not a question of if, its definitely question of when. But its not a question of when, what is another question of? (Audience laughs). What I mean to say is were going. (Audience laughs). Okay now, whether we live to see it or not, its sort of beside the point. Humanity, our sons only got another 4 and a half, 5 billion years left, I mean so there you go, theres your imperative. So theres a generation that believes that we belong out exploring space. Is it this current generation? Are they getting the inspiration that they need? Its seeing the shuttle drag to the streets of Los Angeles adequate if theyre not receiving anyif theyre not out there reading Ray Bradbury or you know this science fiction personally other choice. Just to reinforce that, Chesley Bonestell, turns out he was working with the best science of the time, which was fuzzy things to telescope eyepieces, got pretty much right there in terms of the hills, the dust and everything else. And heres different types of space vehicles exploring Mars. Our students thinking in that kind of term, in that kind of context. Ill just throw this one out here to just as a highlight here from the movie The Angry Red Planet. Video: Oh hes alive. David Seidel: One of the worst science fiction creatures ever created. You want to be wearing your face plate and your helmet as well. You can see the puppeteers even lost interest in this. Okay so (audience laughs) enough of that. Its an awesome movie. Its a great popcorn movie we used to show during our teacher workshops after dinner. Alright so this isIm going to close with this image, I want to show you some really quick although Im posting the schedule here a little bit. This is a picture taken by the Hand Lens Imager. Its a left handed arm by the way. So its got a shoulder attached to the left side of the rover, elbow and wrist and the fingers are all these instruments and tools at the end. Its a view reaching down underneath the rover looking at the bottom of the rover pass through the wheels with Mount Sharp in the distance. So, this is not only a pretty cool picture. Its actually two pictures sandwiched together but this is an artifact manufactured here in California that is sitting on the surface of an alien world and its just getting started on a mission that very well might help us understand whether theres life abundant in the universe and in our solar system or whether were really completely alone and this is it. So inspirational, exciting, real jobs, real work here in the State of California. I want to make sure that people appreciate that even if they dont choose to come work on it. And they never was unamazed with the national legislature that we even have a space program sometimes considering all the things that happen. In case you didnt know, the NASA budget is four tenths of a cent. So as Neil deGrasse Tyson says if you held up a dollar bill and you cut off four tenths of a percent off of that, it wouldnt even get you in the ink. So were not exactly an expensive part of the budget but were the part that actually does return dividends. Let me waive one thing at you and Ill get off the stage here and Ill have this too if anyone wants to check this out during the break, youre more than welcome to do that. One thing that Ive noticed in the Next Generation Science Standard is the term model is everywhere in there. Its not a really clear definition of what they mean but there it is. So hopefully, therell be some things that address that. Well, this is a computer simulation that was developed for the Mars Exploration rover, this could be the Mars Science Lander of landing, the entry, descent and landing. And it can run in real time if you speed it up and theres a lot of manipulation you can do to it to change position and orientation. And it has time advanced in the lower right hand corner, distance, altitude, speed and so on. So let me take us through just real quickly here. Theres a lot you can do with it. This is a tool called Eyes on the Solar System. So its a cruise ring separation. So Im going to speed up time considerably and well hit the atmosphere. Okay this is the real right here but you can speed it up here. This is where were going. Free to download by the way. Its using a 112% of my processor right now in the Mac but you know as long as you keep your computer cool, itll work just great. Alright let me get down here tojust some acronyms here. So lets begin Surfer. Surfer means straighten up and fly right. We jettison tungsten masses that rebalances the spacecraft so see them disappear off here in a moment. There they go. We actually have an image that shows their impacts and the next of the line. Heres the parachute deploy and Im running it much faster than the real rate here. So back shell separation coming up in less than a minute. We can zoom in on it. This is a divert maneuver. So the parachute wouldnt land on us. Yeah, this actually run 12 seconds fast when we were using during the mission but to be updated. And then the Sky Crane fly off and then heres our rover on the surface. And if you want to know what it looks right now, we have live modes so. A little bit crooked in terms of my Mac not running fast enough. But again, heres a simulation here. This is part of something called Eyes on the Solar System that allows you to go to any planet. You can visit any of our spacecraft and do similar kinds of maneuvers with it. So fun toy, again its listed along with the Seven Minutes of Terror video and some other things and my Powerpoint presentation online. And I didnt do too badly here. So thank you very much, happy to answer any questions you have for me. (Applause)