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good evening i'm Alexander Rose an executive director at the long now Foundation thank you all for making it out and squeezing it looks like to think of that everybody and from the outside line thank you um as many of you know that before we do these talks we have a tradition called the Long short a short film that exemplifies long term thinking we try and fifteen days for the evenings talk and for this evening Austin in our office found this wonderful one that was done for a radial after this called words sentence is about the interpretation of words and has no words and enjoy on the phone too oh no was surprised by getting interested in languages are a Rosetta project really was just the idea to figure out something would be fun to show in the non digital preservation format once we discovered that nobody had actually collected all the document languages in the world in one place we started getting into it and now person in charge for a set of use or Welcher linguist was like training and though we are fighting are so cute getting off the languages would surely it can ever to appear a couple months ago of it spent time with the par aha email was on hand up he threw up Noam Chomsky these approach to linguistics because it didn't fit with what he saw the field our next speaker says that all anthropologists have this experience please welcome someone coming from psychology to linguistics Lera Boroditsky the the the you very much in having me it's a real pleasure to be able to speak to this crowd the home the home crowd on I study how the language is that we speak she completely and all I discussion of this class starts in a sea of speech languages BBQ for one what you require your speakers let's start with that it suppose what I say this in our hypothetical this focus on the verb time if you would say this in English and is something that happened in the past then you have to mark that on the verb the say read instead it will be to me its history the team that information Act it's only which is uber cool change he could verb that there are tense in Indonesia it's all at the verb but always seats some languages is not only would you have to change it verb but you've got to figure out how long ago in the past the event happened to the temple and me and ask to be keenly it there are five different past tense so depending on whether something happened just now or in the last two weeks and one year or so he would have to use a past tense some languages at I can Russian my native it langauge that it got too much sense but you'd also have concluded on the verb gender of the week so if it leads to Todd Palin it could be the case is different for her and if it was Sarah in Russian I get to taste verb depending on whether event that was completed or not so if a Sarah read the whole thing others it just me but the one for her she steamed to learn she started it down we also have to get this picture it's very lenient see this coming on creatures is tomorrow we have to connect with it it on languages which is likened to Turkish you up to verb different depending on how you came to know about some of each stamp if I you witness this miraculous event that your are stuck with the one verb if you just heard about it after someone or maybe something new and varied for something to say get to see her again some languages make many such distinctions he knows something hearing this site is steeped in barring it from hearing was to bring it inside use up all the different verb but it sucked how languages really required very different things that are speakers must be the case but speakers of different languages see the world it but to speak of light which grammatically it this site are good enough just because it doesn't necessarily mean it everyone notices all of the stupid things just depending on the lead which they use you happen to it one bit of information about a bit of information but it doesn't really mean that you don't know all the worst linguistic expressions are always very sparse the only real really ever saying a very small proportion now so it could be everyone actually knows in peace attention to all staff let it be that would mean that all speakers a volley which is the FTP attention to encourage all of the distinctions that are included in all of the world's languages in a country carried the SEC staff that the tampons the debate I'm eighty inevitably which a spot is not to be the one question lots of interesting questions that we can ask for example you can ask to people who speak different languages think differently is learning new languages she really thinks that he take a French class or Japanese class he just learning a new way are you actually learning a new way of thinking in new way of seeing them I gots people speak lots of play which is to be differently depending on the link which they are speaking out in the moment I am so people some bedding most report that they're actually feel like a good thing inland speaking Spanish to make a habit if a person or a different person unthinkable happened which accurately which doesn't have that particular property you haven't learnt that the ticket yet I would either some things that are impossible for you too can see ultimately what is a stick which is universal in human cognition the languages and cultures allowance to become a smart and sophisticated as we are and their intrinsic value in all this linguistic diversity at seven thousand languages in the world and they all differ from one another and innumerable this is devaluing have been expressing opinions on this topic for very very long time so I hear firsthand from China none of the Roman Emperor he said sad to have a second language is to have a second soul it's a very strong statement about that the value of which one of his successors says a man whose foreign language uses for it is worth one and again another very strong statement I and other successor Frederick the great depression had a more specific set of hypotheses he says I speak English to Mecca thanks to land that students need to ministers led him to my guide enter into my pores sure how he came up with this particular set the kinds of things that people had been sitting for a long time Germany's better for these intermediate French is better for love the Hebrews better for oratory a new circle advocates for a new piece he reached over arching hypotheses but I will talk about more specific well these guys had a lot of it everyone has been in love with this idea sit here and is Jerry further he said philosopher of mind and that he says relativism with the heat anything else except me he's a sailor said he doesn't and he doesn't like Ann Coulter lilies and we can use boats but beyond those boats that it will be in its existence the safety of the plane which my sheep we people you the leaks persons with cognitive science and philosophy of mind linguistics it around to the collapsed at a few decades the treaty became disenchanted with the safety of the plane which I hate that we can it because there's so little evidence that these kinds of effects so it was a few days show you some of the new acts so the question we have is structured to be taken in protest I shaped the way we can to encourage her present from an increase here's the outline for the park that before a different way of settling which is thought to four weeks that I think are interesting at the first one is blatantly which can have deeper or the effect on competition the next one is wiggling which could have broader produce effects I'll explain these leader whether it be differences is a function of costly stick at different speeds a way that they're important real world it's suspect let's start with deep Ruby I knew that's what the is there so on the difference is that I can change how you perceive the world so that it carried a six percent pressing things presses it is very very early in the Cup history I may be affected at wing Beach he can show that something like takes place what's on that everything down downstream everything that are the perceptible costs would be affected as well it's very exciting the contents and picking a huge amount of information from the world we can't possibly prices all its deter a lot of encryption way so it fits the case it's because of different languages and trying out different parts of their perception of cremation when you throw up information early on in perception prices it's got to get a stick at that's one reason people have been very excited to look for early at ten ish sick I don't mean to look isn't the perception of color so languages defied the color spectrum and many many different ways something which is only two weeks of her son had lots and lots of words on this an example these colors don't look at exactly right but to speak a word for it I'm so in English at theirs agreeable to that covers let's pretend all the covers screen here but in the shame there isn't a single word from at there instead two different words you have to make a distinction that he might be the schoolboy and that he's seen so it means that Russian speakers to call the stupid ways by different names it mean that patients because actually see those places be more different from mine that it would be easier for them to distinguish East so the kids and the simple task people I showed the patches of color the laptop is identical to one of the Clinton we all tell which one it so I didn't ask that all you have to do this you have to press a button you can let her in the right to see which one is taken for a simple pass you don't have to be very smart do this task if you are teaching you could do this task they don't need language for this past week but she missed this you make a distinction in your line which actually change how quickly and at how well you can get this set up this play the trials the descriptor color the color they are not going to choose comes from I had different to increase the category in Russian then the two colors they're identical and other trials it comes from seeming to catch him Mr Speaker this kind of trial I are left should be easier than that I'll write the speaker first there all day no distinction supposed to touch equally the pretext of course the words never accurate colors are just there for you or your convenience now that we started doing this study we did it because I thought it wasn't going to work I thought of giving the good way to place limits on how far lane which can be tempted to cut its staff there are two surprises coming my way the first prize is there's actually difference between Russian speakers and how they were able to get the stats special speakers put her on these kinds of trials and trials where's the speakers fed no different even though they're looking at all the same colors of the Russian speakers room there something in each of the colors that was different a I actually were the past surprise when is that to them the week people's ability to use language and the casket way so as people for doing this task we need them the numbers to sell this a wipes out your ability to do to access your linguistic knowledge only kickbacks that took away the crest of the state average it's because the English speakers this suggested to us that it was late which meddling in this very low level we never would've thought to win which would be reached Ellis it expects so I was just settling which kept the athlete and into the scary or the eye seats and change that we have come across this even the perceptible work other something more brought something that's something that applies to maybe more more different categories here's an example at the broader for a stint at its effects usually come from grammatically pizzas so in lots of claim which is their grammatical gender systems where on downstairs into a one game during which the masculine and an increase in Spanish at how many people here speak the language just perhaps it's set up almost all of you know and talk about it can be pretty for being a bikini with the first reading learn the language to my attention to it today says this wonderful at essay about how he was frustrated and learning French add to my gender so much so that he decided to return everything in the plural certificate to toasters to ten eighty years add to blender say that because then he would have to remember them Anderson so on one thing it's very convenient about Abbi dramatically genders they differ from mine which limits the free sample to wait for this I'm standing in German and Spanish the week beginning this mosque and German and its package does that mean that actually German speakers actually think of the sun is the more pendants and no Spanish speakers it is the one asking the people actually take the leap from the schematic to it show you an example of how for the sake of the agenda market in the land which has come a day or so this is an example from Russia in words have different than other contenders have different fun optical properties of sound different on these different number where it's the way for one will be different depending on whether it's one masculine sleeping and in its thing I get different attitude and it's different the nuns in the sense that even different thread and it just so I circled in red there is one example if you wanna say in action my chair was wiped away tears asking the city is the masculine form of mind when you have the word chair that is has investments they use the masculine for what is and ask him or what see it just mark the masculinity of the chair four times and forwards don't have a lot of opportunity to forget what the gender things Tikrit basic features privilege the effect of grammatical gender actually look like what is it me I say to you do you think of the chairs masculine feminine in the year not think he has no biological properties but what could possibly take is an example I this is that Angie nineteen describing an experience that he had as he was switching between Russian and French spending summers at with his pen he says as to how they served all the sounds of Charlotte's lately each this planet and without wondering why at that link in the grass that become extinct admitting brilliance sometimes existed in investment and had a tea bag to Christian identity imposed it seemed fine when it's nice to talk to the Russian word for a hour and its skin it was scintillating the velvety up liking an inning or becoming the team's bench after spending there the kind of effective grammatical gender and skin and takes the group are at that something takes on a different kind of defeat she ate a bit iffy cheating a different connotation depending on the conduct which hasn't language well normal people have these kinds of associations are too sensitive young and learning French the others so here's some examples a friend in the literature people people who are not poets at showing skin on it's because this is a study done in nineteen fifty an old study a Russian speakers at Moscow State University were asked personified ease of the week to act like Monday your acts like Wednesday like Tuesday these days so that we have differing cannot attend it's so Monday is a feeling that Wednesday is spent and at what the researchers noticed this is a study day roaming up detailing the Pistons people are acting out as these days of the week actually had to act like a man from Monday with a woman for Wednesday study I dumped it in Spanish speaking his grasp when looking at any good move here all the characters and their night at the clock Fox to make it in pencil what was she begins to be scared I had to choose the place I think they're young kids were starting to kick voices that were country the voice the one o'clock to have depended on that project I'm in another set of sadistic words to describe out to teachers come into the last thing we are told three adjectives to describe the breach people have to add to these chickens adjectives but he looked like they can work in groups cannot protect him I expended in your mind that you would like to see beautiful elegant extended where's the task of a new language more like DC on power the arts on you can see these effects to your own eyes if u R Kelly asked the artist decide how to personify extra him to use in their art so we did this piece looked through a arts through which is a giant Ikea piece about six hundred years our works at we concentrated on we asked for all the personification said exist in this art to the east and we predict with their time or death or victory will be masculine or feminine depending on the grammatical gender and artistically which it is seventy percent I'm making a prediction so he fled in a combat pretty good at it too high to place the kinds of things you can see it for yourself step for step of the statue of Liberty by slippery the a League when she spoke she speaks and in French the baby is what they see John Ashcroft and behind him is this step to justice that he tried to cover up because she was sewing decent I guess you could ask why is justice just to suspend him that's where it's way here are some of my favorite examples this is the collection though on sculpting different parts of the day so that the UN the day that dogs can you may ask well why is the dawn I wanted and Damien dusk IV in and night to one am well this that the conduct which years it this is that wonderful way in which this little quirk of grammar that we don't eat them you who speak a language like this as a speaker you don't even notice its plea even into the physical world that we everything he gets passed down his physical weakness that there at the people in half ok now we're going to be interested in this funny quirk a contender is that the content or so per the state and not leave which gender goes on out so on if he can show they cannot attend her people think that means that this feature of language that is a teacup think about anything the canteen name by now think about all the things he can't name I now it's as you look around the world at exit very hairy beast of the way there'd be different its agenda any easier small tree nations widely spread the area leaving the eight defeats on differences I think we need to turn to those parts of a nation we are we really need to construct the world where the world doesn't have a structured to get us we have to bring structure it the good things to look at that so I take time to time is one of my favorite examples but it's a it's the one hand it's extremely popular set the word and is at the most frequent now an invention of the temple where it's like here and day out on top at least in English speaking culture were upset with her but even though it's so frequent Sarah it can't stop its forms the very fabric of our experience but you can't see it behind me that next time you can smell time come up with that type of representation at this abstract yet this question you come up with leprosy patients abstract the US has been hunting people for the the wrong time I get frustrated play dough for example treated him so much that he came up with it being the next post ethical argument called argument and the pot to keep the students but that argument let's is that information available in the fire is simply not enough not structured enough not complex enough not available it to Beaver to create abstract thought and so I he says I kept seeing how we could possibly very nice things it in his solution is a wee bit called in from past incarnations our souls I Amy inculcate of you know what that spring it's a long time ago a wooded the creek is now anyway Aristotle thought that green is a greedy or so I didn't even know thinking happen to agree on I should kick actually modern ideas about we are content to come from I'd share some of these very happy secure for example is no Chomsky and two thousand he says if it weren't such discovery came here was the familiar problem of poverty the students surprisingly conclusion may be that nature has provided us with any stock of contacts and the child's task is to discover their peoples it can BBQ other possibilities I like to think there must be a possibility it just isn't very even the exciting note you actually were born in the ATF carburetor bureaucrat carried out the awesome right I don't know what a carburetor nice now that seems unlikely so let's that lets look for some answers so all the evidence on this story we come up with an ATM it's the canteen Adam it's probably not through personal experience that time travel it's not because you actually went and travel to another time and came back and the story we experienced on this discovery I'm hustling which you speak with the spatial language speech were to talk about so we see things like we're approaching holidays are coming up on Christmas where and coming up tell for May's out that metaphor and analogy where I need to pass a new traveling that analogy based attendees to pass in your traveling well on a regular path he can travel in any direction you want in whatever speaking summer to have that amount she thinks it allows the possibility you can help me taking in the East so what evidence can be a bit this kind of way of building on the couch responsible or something people do well so one question you can ask is it the case that people build knowledge of time I acknowledge its peace there is two patterns in remission but to actually reach the people I cringed if we say these things the secretary to the dance of the time travel story just eat one is you have to have patented lane which encourage an analogy and yet there is that you are using special knowledge it just a couple of brief data points and connected the coolest ones that I have but if you have a repeat it ok on the way this is a good ad demonstration of how tasty oriented Adam I detest the idea that the way people speak about the time is based in honey that's pieces to find cultures have two for different ways of thinking about speaks and see they also have different ways so to demonstrate the difference but it was all due this month but I need to ask all of you close your eyes I can start it's the least I can tell if they're happy and stress everyone played South East next feeding ok you can open your eyes a seaplane spare their day and and I dunno which reduced the data many make a few observations about what you did is a cognitive psychologist at first that there's a really low compliance rate a lot of you just did not point we may have to throw you out of this subject with them on second there is a really long reaction time for light he took a long time tend to pull and that perhaps most importantly that the actors he was very high I don't need to know which way is to know that because he has planted in every possible direction I now possess the places where asking a question like that I would yield immediate correct responses from everyone including people who find your soul so I don't come back and Alan asked folks at Stanford or Harvard MIT at the dudes at the scene guys to it's just not something that we keep track so what if the sculptures that keep track of where the honor of that here's an example of a culture had a chance to work with there an Aboriginal group in Australia it afterwhich is they don't use I briefly left and right to defy speaks instead everything is expressed in terms of North South East and West I mean everything all skeptics say say things like there's a dog trying to buy your EastLink I can you move your cup to the north west a little bit the boys standing south of the area's my bread there every skein just hoping that I can you must see or eat because you don't just have to stay oriented to describe its consistent moment you have to bring the girls which the earring to be able to describe the stakes get straight to you did I'd be able to see things like oh I must've left my glasses to the north west of the telephone silly of me at all after dinner party you can only say oh they set their salad forks to the south east of the dinner for the Phillies diets the sake of those Tbilisi nine his hand in this PC party I say look and the answer should be something like by distance of the queue that is really to get past them know you have to know which leader to ten knots in your normal daily lives as you're walking around your office you walk an aisle where is your every person says hi tea tree prettier heading direction youth oriented pretty quick there was a geek speak about of all social church it's a political prop so that people who speak languages like this they're a lot of languages like this around the world people who speak languages like this you have a pretense attraction they are able to perform navigation that we use to think we're beyond human ability so on we know for a long time that it looks different kinds of animals and at orientation abilities that seemed to surpass him in our kitchen is so for example retail ants at the state we did pretty well baking decorating but they use a treat to take steps such as that or birds into the state granted that they have been added to their beaks so he now takes off the hook well he's out there people in the world to adjust the rain to the keen attention to where they're going it's because they have to do its duty to speak the language so we don't have any excuses and don't need to happen that meets your Dukes to do it the strict sense of direction steam in all kinds of cool to practice and art sale at the Arctic people producing the sculptures is always done from a bird's eye view it to leak out on the ground to appropriate orientation I start to the one explain how it's going to repeat that people think about the question is if you think about space good deed to settle to mean I don't speak about time here's a task I give people a set of pictures like that's a topic to be pictures of my grandfather to eat scramble them up they couldn't even see the geese out on the grounds it there and the correct order if they are displayed in the correct order is that as of the speakers perceive the correct order from left to right the week and goes press now of course this left her a Twitter relates to writing to action is nothing intrinsically linked to write about time and had their wonderful examples from history that the casing way and that's the free sample have at this low though this is part of their nutritional supplements for kids program whenever they add try this out and say in Arabic speaking country he ran into some problems because if you read this from a right to left it's not clear what this product as for your child so they had to head to rethink their approach even ill people are asked to lay out and seeing things in temporal order to English speakers will eat things out like this where steeper speakers were gunning a correction and has even that I view the fun finding Blair for any sentence you ask people in the chain there is giving flowers to Susie try that out well speakers or try to outwit spill in Alaska to see Arabic speakers would try it out with the London take it easy to surmise that between action and action seems to go in that direction cool for finding all the action see you imagine how pissed percent report the time either don't use ft sec left in it so how will he arranged this because dude from left to right if I were both eighteen here's an example percent sorry for men is healed and tear on to his person next to a seated facing south and these numbers represent or guarantee their bikes to get the picture sets out to hear everything goes from I left her I use a secret Santa differently this time feasting on it choose from right to lead first and if he's East well everything comes to expect but the order the East West now at risk when you look at these padding that you might think there's no work and are just doing it any which way you know I actually I would appreciate is that it's the speakers that are to your door I'm always travels with acts with respect to my body real teaching in a moment in time is going to split but now it's going this way but now it's going to skip any case the trip to Aspen time it was to turn around every ten returner sometimes States with respect to Polanski perhaps as a kid ok went into the interest in the sky City samples is that the chemistry between a difference and I needed a cognitive ability to check on us to English speakers that we tested at least costs could not have done with I did because they simply didn't know which famously said even if they wanted to and layout time for Easter less they have no idea which the east where he could do it on and it was the tipping know I actually East whisper you explain it's just not the way we organize or be organized with respect us this post with respect this shows that there are so costly differences that are not just a matter of a tree that when it is more or less explain that way it is qualitatively different ways to organize the world this is the dates I think it's discovering these other ways to keep it organized the world of their ways you can see the world there I it's almost like you get to have attended a dinner or snack apparel discovering it for weeks so we think about how people think at that time in at giving you two examples are one of that what makes a difference one is how people think about space to keep buying the ticket that speaks to me but at the plant was about cultural artifacts like reading direction Nelson's too out patterns and which metaphors and language the kitty a few samples from him it it's time chorus uncle or is it for what that is a study comparing English Mandarin speakers in both English and Mandarin you can use Corps entrepreneurs to organize time and in the atrium cricketers are also quite frequent still in entering the past is up and futures down to the upfront is the last mile and a down market next month so on does that mean that many speakers actually I'm predicting more more so to speak here's a simple task I stand next to someone and you say tell you that this year's today with which it is good and when which the prestigious best to let me stay in a sample after a dramatic reenactment this is me it is made with the needle I will leave in June so so that their Mandarin speaker lunch a great year queries a day practices Q a dance and ten the day so I know the UN audio and other weighty test is this a little bit more in the sack at this task keeping you can try for yourself so I didn't see a picture like this that and then you can see another picture that will represent their earlier leader tongue point so starting from this set earlier in the air in it didn't I it it some of these are tricky now that instead of responding for police and just asking did you react to protest against responding pressing buttons it to dairying like this where the earlier buttons on the left leader but isn't right or if they could invigorate first time the opposite direction for my English speakers like on Fuller they couldn't arrange critically either with the earlier button on top when the earlier a bomb delays would there be some napping it's more an actual activation and speakers like better it he likely next to the well and I can show you graph first graph at the top so appellants reaction times of its slow word and here we had English because I'm on the left this because in the dark Mr Lam at the earlier bought this on the left and with them don't like it when your spot buttons on the right went to the army they don't care don't care if the earlier buttons on top or bottom on financing speakers at eight also preferred eagerly but nonetheless still an MIT the English speakers they also have a preference on the plaques they want the earlier back into the top past earlier past is out I feel like it you bought but keeping on enemy just plain out that there's an overall difference mention speakers on in our sample are a little bit slower than the English speakers that's because this there are English speakers early Stanford's to stick to their selected to be put to perform our trip our victory tasks very efficiently it's very hard to find other people for a weekly selected in the specially this purpose and said that's why there's always going to get things like this ok on that the rules so frenetic to say that metaphors rather than asking it's time for some critical now let's ask smoking are you looking into the forest and coming towards you so English but that these things are here both of these metaphors are available he can say we're approaching holidays we can take holidays approach at helps us get the full story chance that people actually think of these two scenarios to be very different even though it's against the laws of physics to think if there is a very different because I am there's no fixed grounded in Scripture those two things should be the time is it that were speaks as if it had its extra demand now but the lesson of the speakers I use both of these metaphors quick pick me on most of its kind people talk about something much more rarely do people talk about themselves is moving in time it will be the case that a superior this is an abstracted graph of the many studies I'm only thing is that Mandarin speakers so enchanting up to speed up is more likely to think of kindness moving and modeling tools I might like it because I was reading English monarchs it creeps up finding holes in the middle so that meant English Ivy was protested and entering look like Mandarin speakers and a once in a test match that says you that the plane which the tube it's said that to get to that bilingual England looking for one lane which are not there does that make a difference the answers yes but I look like they're those two groups are actually looking like a mindless by language what that suggests is that Eileen bulls the ones that are tested in entry it being affected by having my English even though they're not speaking in a bilingual is that a test in English it being affected by having learned winter evening speaking it is both a slow time effectively having my language it's affecting even when you're not using bleach but also this immediate effect that switching between the two split amicably which are speaking to cling to it cool the test here's just another example this is an example to me I lie in South America I'm not a sin English futures ahead speck of dust is ahead of this the worst kind danced with the King forward to next year its own the pictures isn't it and that in this wonderful study at the ski touring the filming is look at how it would just ruin the top of a time I'm borrowing a couple but to pass the test or clicked for me to talk about the future the test retorts the back corner for school so I don't mean at times it seems to feed the differences in how people think can be the reverse direction Claire an extra dimension go from east to west is a poster from left to right at this as the PPP this it if it isn't real world it's the real world consequences West end the real world people really care about what things are called and we know that that people are actually arguing about what things should be called returning to change the names of the US that did it but didn't think that what things are called matter he would never have to be there and they're so pretty striking examples right to call someone an anti abortion or pro life I do you call a government structure regime are in administration a TV called people freedom fighters were insurgents or terrorists is a different perspective I does the US government sponsored torture nor is it just enhanced interrogation techniques to get very serious consequences I is an acidic government rescue plan or is it the bailout turns out mainly people support the same provision to call it the rescue plan to call it the last time or another example the Bill and Monica had sex at the case for impeachment and stand on the definition of this word means to PTC these spots this is a sillier example of one and one that brings came on at some point at the eighteen years in the real boring nothing of import be teaching the FDA to allow them to change the name of the project from roots to try this now add just a peek they are printed right on the same thing Easter nowhere they wanted you to obviously it's a good idea because prudence the wood frame in a terrible linguistic neighborhood what a Prince neighbors plan all the Ch laxatives they remind you of all kinds of things that's gonna help the California State not want to be reminded to bring me shopping for snacks whisk it right on this method of removing its deeper and deeper desire dried apricots and dried mangoes him Brian Kiwi fruits all kinds of tasty things will seek take a hike on so vain Dave a kitten heel be the case the young California to be more interested in buying and dried plums and your interest in buying things they cost them millions of dollars to get and get this change it dried plums to sell better than Prince eventually they had to add sell prints and dried plums side by side because some people actually wanting them laxative properties of prints Bayside there's one in the healthy delicious snack after August on first anyone who's traveled there isn't there bizarrely named products being sold around the world as an example of a curry sweat today popular soft drinks all all around Asia and the buyers there aren't concerned by the connotations of the week sweat and something to drink I and there's a reason I think you can all guess my history hasn't taken off is a big seller in America that's because perhaps advertises understand something the split may not taste as sweet back to more serious matters it the world building which requires is to construe the fence in the world even is the smallest at the shortest instantaneous physical effects for Clarence to come up with some leading me to to take this example eye Dick Cheney was out hunting has failed the hunting accident yesterday and he shoots his hunting partner a winning team in the East now it's a split second defendant in a mini many different ways that we could possibly construed said this is one that this is from your King Harold and they said Cheney actually are so Cheney went out for lawyers well now it's a straightforward the share Cheney shot Harry Whittington he could say Harry Whittington got chopped I came he picked a e a Harry Whittington got to be touching up to get a new text a kiss but Cheney said that this is when he was taking full responsibility for the event he said it on well for me with a guy who pulled the trigger that fired the round they carry and you can talk about the of the conditions that existed the time but that's the bottom line and there's no does not carry spot it's a kind of image the first sentence ultimately I'm the guy who pulled the trigger that fired the round he split second it then but now therefore actually teaching of foreign banks and he just happens to be on one end of his pants actually did one better but he said he said he had a bright flash when he turned and pulled the trigger and saw his friend get through it some monster full expectation he transforms from a change in your weakness with in one sentence I of course the onion always has the best lines they say what has the knowledge of a team that God is speaking more and they need to trim additional benefits with the sadistic and stiffer on it so much eating T T I too much cause of power this gene happening to me describe it as the person who caused the outcome was just one and of a long chain of events that created the outcome was he even I don't fall I would just give us many many tools to construe the intensely than that stupid construed in some way so English you could say John proof that the Easter that bespoke and then a call at this kind of construction it in to the other not intend to in Spanish for example you can also say something like John Breaux to face with a bespoke but in the trash it's a it's kind of construction that John proof that the speech and construction its mark on it when using on attentively which it sounds it be said to sort of thing that politicians do with young kids do you know when they're trying to get out of having done something stupid mistakes for me all of us have a favorite non ejected usage is that we've seen in politicians it's catfish it's the agent of construction it's more economical if that wasn't the second was an accident we could say he broke the peace you but to me that he spoke he would use this makes a heater on to market on this is a old joke at a meeting and American Canadian and Mexican distance though a good thing in this country safer in the East it's also a spot whenever something goes wrong to say something or a CD on the Spanish actually sky common in the world's languages and English seems to be kind of an outlier in terms of how it chanted we want or descriptions to the ceiling will educate you can see it's like I broke my arm Dublin which as you can say something like I broke my arm a masterpiece unless you specifically when out looking to break your arm and then you break it and it just that would just be a really bizarre thing to say so these kinds of differences in Hollywood just hand to discredit that actually mattered for example how people assign blame and punish add it to the next one EP and keep an eye witness country is an example say that so at dark on Mary Ann I wish the people of Haiti as I am idiocy to contain intentional or accidental actions to hear someone popping a balloon intentionally the rear but see that it at this in action also popping a balloon but this time it's an accident to be at the student is our creek Wilson two tracks I we went to find out to the English and Spanish speakers actually describe these events to differ so I guess putting the speaker said about the accidents he said adding that the GOP's cancel all trying to play with it his head down and picked up the speaking or if he wants to build in I liked this one and then opens and I'm at the opening umbrella Lazard automatic be opening my summing up to open in either someone has to open in automatically opening umbrella a way with a meat person I have to be sure to click tidying up the box off the table in Spanish the cases looked quite different Sue at people say things like an a capella him upon him to cancel group where he was going to put something away in her post itself the keepers state itself stuck to his hand simply screw themselves I've nowhere pencil split itself into escaping it ever happens in English so I used to showing you the differences and distinctions in that forum for intentional actions and really describes at the fence and gently press into actions is a difference in the speaker's it does reduce the margin to descriptions Spanish speakers so I blog about in misery to people you can not describe include a day on the contention to predict it feels good to remember that maybe that was an important part of the van to a potential can so that we should people now expect its own at a temple in the past people made it seem these two guys performing his actions I tell you is the third character and he does the action in this case popping the balloon the contest we asked which of these guys did it the first so it's kind of like a lineup just have to say can you please remember to attend in his will actions everyone remembers he did pretty well the facts the elections well English speaker summer member who did really well there's space speakers at the less well that's a less important thing to pay attention to plan attacks it's very specific to the current because of descriptions that you repeat useful that they are part of a potential consequences skip on any kitty another example on him this matter for how much people a month punish people on you what city we looked at a whole bunch of quick thesis about two hundred thousand court cases I hurried in London said to court and yet simple question if your trial contains an agent of expression I broke it I'd be more likely to be found guilty in a church that contains an unintended expansion it broke any excuse gets if it is attentive language in years in the transcript if you are a quick East year going to be more like it also wanted to find out on much does it matter how much to linguistic descriptions actually so what we did was we should people at Janet Jackson's Orchard malfunction I stuck the guys probably will show it now because I don't want to upset the censors but this isn't a bad way just in Timberlake and Janet Jackson were performing at the Super Bowl halftime and for nine sixteen pts of the second Janet Jackson's breast was that it sort of display on national television is a big deal and I just until the lake actually clean the term worker of malfunctions print this apology from didn't exist until I he apologized for the wardrobe malfunction and the people are having worked or the functions of the time and so we bought a video they saw the video and we get them either inattentive rephrase that news report about it or not it changed the face news report actually be a technical report except for a couple of things Santa question is how much extra do you have to compete for transit you get it that got me over the transit of construction how much will that cost you one Justin Timberlake skis people wanted fifty three percent more in fines and I we say here that the costume as opposed to the costume for it pretty hefty fine to protect it ok so this is where you can on just review some of that the sense that I think the samples and showing you our baby about language they ask lately which keeps the recipient between the needy people after that the different faces different me and because of that the topic Kenya which we attract cause of the woods here some ways that we at taking a nap when I stand in language training studies today D is it's a plane which means she thought she'd people to people and new with tough enough to change everything that's exactly what I said this is done that's exactly it on when you were talking and in it for me also teachers recently which means to be so high in the cases on eyewitness memory for example what if the English speakers and you just bombarded them with not intend to play in which they kept saying things like the toast is burned in the crisp passing and I hate spiders and an amateur remember a bunch of actions actually the worst at remembering we did after hearing that can not attend to it's just gets it yourself around to it in it even within and expect the content and language changes would appear attention to one is going to get city so I talked about this at the very beginning of the top piece of colored at he won the people's ability to use language in a task that often changes how they often changes with a view actually makes this quite stupid he's a link which they don't realize that we're solving a lot of tasks linguistic that's what we're doing a lot to study showing if you wait the plane which amount to be the team's its puppet people it's a bilingual study soon you take but the most New Testament lonely which are another to see the linguistic context that the media to context and I saw an example that he did it matters but in New Testament which another on and the complete add to find out is to compare the tables on gloves and Steve having learned that dealing with its complete a pass it makes a difference and gets hit that assaults yes some other ways to establish the cause out that Lee was actually hot pace of causal role is of course the case that ass in France also goes the way languages are to be for our purposes here to see our cognitive me so it isn't just a win which keeps up its cos of that differences in the this to something sweet black people who speak different languages thing to me in many different aspects of play which they can cheat at cooking from grammar and lexical defense has been torn up and coming which is great which medals and even low level perception of decisions at surprising me on a new languages can change the way you can see this in the bilingual studies at people who've learned in Atlanta which are just learning a new way it expects the box there in it for me actually changing it which expects based on a scandal in which their learning so to speak what you think differently depending on the link to it being stupid I in by the most bold claim it is or however many languages you know I get to some extent when even when you're not using linked to some long term having me but you get to show you is happening in Ewing which you can change the way you speak in which the Whitsundays we continue to encourage ironing clothes at an Indonesian you don't have to add Mark tents were asked to conduct the temporal and the nation and sentences if you don't want that option Indonesia's complete English which requires its forces in every sentence any chance of learning English start putting more temple and the nation in immune condition today actually changing everyday speaking a different beast it I explain which provides us with a ton of cognitive to get out Huxley the knowledge of world few buckets been developed over thousands of years of culture incredibly rich knowledge system speaking each linguistic system it so I am sharing at least a little bit of evidence as testing the play which is really shake how we construct reality and they help make this a smart and sophisticated as PR it's one thing that I do agree and Trotsky on I he says will study human lane which were put in what some might call the human aspects the distinctive qualities of mind are so biased we know he can this it just is that if we take this idea that language baby differ from one another series it at this point which is a skating somewhat different killing us it's a somewhat different way of the summit different way of seeing the world and each one Mac be a potentially very exciting I can't say I think a ok that language but you're telling a super funny and she still think that's the kindest at it just doesn't seem to work on so here's an example on the change that to some linguistic changing its history Sergei US Congress decides to rename French fries to freedom fries this is when France refuse to go into the war in Iraq and didn't want to join a coalition of the living this was their way of getting back added well that and that that seems stupid this new set during World War one for example everything they had a German sounding names that begin with very decent dinner there on Sydney these kinds of substitution still work and it's because they're based on the wrong theory that ha cognition and language so I where it's that you can simply replace one for the ad or link which are sentenced to two words came and I equally go well and any phrase that means that they have the senior students until we make the cut of the things that we are saying this which is synonymous with freedom so thanks as if it spreads to speak and toast and peanut noodles French kissing speak and kissing and have taken many years what we call Fritz than the delay it at French would be the language of freak it's setting up the wrong kind of thing so I was just as if we understand the beauty a howling which are trapped in mind and the nationalistic in a more effective Sophie really want Illinois the French I say take on things that the French he called in French that will be like for example catch it because the sauce McDonald's will be the French cafe short of the French pants ministers will be French towns Disneyland to be France Americans with the French people English during which the offence again thanks brain these are the folks help make this all possible its panels the the the the it one home she was a good new year I decided it was because I break my heart for this venue Chris Christie make so much of flailing quail lightly one of the word is being bilingual and what isn't the flu it's a belief system yes it of religion possibly do it all you who were Russian first is to trial an ending which when you are held well ok it's still pretty young I guess the question I would have on people learn the language a certain way when they're very often in a different way school traveling as an adult it doesn't matter which comes first and how all they manage to buy a wink moments I like to wear it at England's and as I can buy going well with the without falling off my chair he does get harder to Aaron and new languages as you get older and industry for a lot of different reasons that a lot of people use that as an excuse to not learning new languages at but have a different we have the guts to think about it and that is it's to cling to be a lot easier to learn new language now then it will be in ten years said he should start now every year it's like to link it's never too late that Stephanie lot easier now Andrew the future species do it now to me at we seem to be differences and an languages that you are in early on languages that you learn that use the most in language that if it's just been using my things that have the most clear cut chance this is actually played at an old set of principles and coverage so there can be three things the best critic the heat here in Tennessee that the new and first recruits the new deal most often and recent see that the new or just do it and when the teams to be no different to impress the things that you must be the things you just do it more swing you do use gestures or say or even Thomas in question were just cherish them and she wonders if they're been studies that look of the use of hands he emphasized spoken word the set meal play out in these different languages and does it affect our we think and stuff like says because of the killing which is to test different me and at the study of gesture has just come on this team last couple of decades it's that it's something that people didn't use to let that in mind that at all and to eye there's an incredibly rich source it's impossible to that Chester here in Texas I guess researchers give talks at all one thing that's interesting about just reasons that we just shared with Westchester community and for other people if you've ever seen someone talk on the phone is still a gesture which means that we're all suggesting ourselves that it's actually helping the content has both of this but it's not only at two explain something someone else it's false hopes it helps you repeat the word if you ask people to sit on their hands bother getting lots of cognitive tasks I present the heathen same upwards with its hand in the slowdown we want but to be able to have to have her hands just as yeast we push it from Holly actually let the Caprice weekend it to take effect the help of languages which are merely Castro sign language it's to be done any studies on meet the station systems and timing which is the kicker is that the schools the three dimensional space as intensity cents an increase that the people how very very intense that many defense family which is tomorrow and of course I am in that it's the shell of its nature things are represented actually it's the safest in time the way spoken language it's been so at there all kinds of court decisions that suddenly which is also kept me up like I am I going to represent left and right with respect to myself or with respect see things like that Sep layout well if your family which is all that other problem Tiffany and that was huge you have to be happy to get outta here um two versions one of her indiscretion is respond yes show what experiment would love to can and my version a question that the only ask what questions are you asking yourself these days this theory so I expect that everyone in psychology wants to see that it is get a desert island but she just acts and keep epic they control all the conditions of his time to new trees to protect children different exposures information either freeze them only with exposure to German or Spanish or you freeze them with information about their gender or not to really eat any question that's about the origins is that nature is it nurture it that's the question now that that's the extent that everyone wants to be a good sleeper still the ethical reasons around buying diamonds that are easy groups of children in which her whats going on so that we have to come up with that their proxies forgetting that calls story but at or a clanging actual cases where groups comes from creeks different compare don't actually want to freeze children controlled conditions it's to be here the kinds of things and thinking about now are we construe internal expects I think that's the next set next to a really huge she's because until experience how you feel how you think what is it mean to have an ATM plan to send a new beginning when to sit and when you have a lot alike is a pop last but is it need to understand all of these internal experience this they're still important to its inhabitants yourselves I have reacted to a little is known that one how we come up with that say to spell and I think purses have a thought which he too was there before purchase I greeted me at the glimmering seven hundred different languages doing internally bench I thought so isn't am for one thing something you can have so I'm going to be male or female that's right what I get process might be something you can attest to the second half on it might be a proper QQ p I'm thinking he's thirsty mix it with the interesting difference is that people have found him the education center and is a study by one of my colleagues at Stanford for a walk on he he and others notice that it expects something and turned in terms of that and now a category C say I am a character oh and chopper it seems more minutes then he say I love carrots by the carrots are enough chocolate but said he thought could actually shocked people on how much the thing about themselves that they love carrots or chocolate I getting them to write I'm a cat lover was suppose to I love cats says it but when he told them this is the handwriting recognition study I doubt this phrase five tons of people write down space to think it's a totally arbitrary race people are riding on top of that half the people at night I'm chopping and people are riding high in the top of her then later report loving cup of hot and am wanting to buy more chopping eat much one th I played it more times in the future regardless of its effects but the circumstances and so on so on little provide the defense's can have an effect yet on how you think of yourself snow that lingered distinctly different IP described and personalities free samples of selling widgets at Margaret's noun for us to pursue see issues famous fitness dysentery new dish for every personality type to imagine a lot actually a lot of personality terms in English the barn to see some such rot there I mention their clocks pots so all of these things it so Christmas is that a more permanent description of personality thing you would have been used in XP for the purpose see what the people in Italy which is actually in personalities can change or not depending on how the specs she leaves to the advertising up advertising for but some of the best examples are smart folks were thinking about how you cut your own solve the problem people who work in advertising are never surprised link which is important for how people can see the things they think it's bizarre to anyone the reading your stuff and pretty new to the conference is complete think they're eating out he needed help we are at the question I have a number of patients here and people wondering about attended the scene of the attack and the subject hundred of them but Jessica went from Jeff I don't care who is asking about languages whether languages have um more sense than just fighting of the cataclysm know that the Latino or settling which is that you mean if you knew that and said you looked at in languages that are multi gender have different but the other race in St so I bought some plain which is higher than the system that we talked about masculine feminine that's a really boring a stack of blankets much parts at least to buy I announce and tempers some have as many sixteen genders make each year for hunting weapons shiny things or at all males except canines or something like that you add all kinds are at different categorization simply which is the way of life here one is that but I studied in college and PR ceiling which India to category four rounds she thinks that space well into the camera make up the mess they made it like about her gender at the nest and there's an African religion and has gender or on women fire and teachers thanks this one to one gender people but never acted to title of this book at the most dramatic tension was winning fire in a dangerous things but in fact that's not the case has just been an eye and didn't expect it we should use to call her keys but female me now usually has a psychologist was inclusive of a loss or again when we went to the away from his female named for her that I dun care to speculate that the high streets like that St site and limits of free sampling the tree of all diseases I am so many diseases discovery it's always good I did think link which is the these categories them well here's the categories are useful to every word is really category rights to share it with my chair there was a word that and all these different things that are chips they look different the field different smells different and so that weren't chair is a category all all the other way to healing which are two languages in addition to those with degrees also happens to my mind's eye some people instead be present with them at the gender it's useful for keeping track of what's related to weapons snuggling which I can brush then you might know the dependencies between words that are seven words apart it's really hard to know if this adjective is modifying this town that no if you have three grammatical gender is that the probability that will be in a not so unbeaten streak to be able to track what goes with what so that's what when useful it's really just left it corrects humans love love cutting into categories in organizing her world but the effects are all sitting in his organize chairs I can see station the segregated from you and your parking these wonderfully organized parking spots outside in our streets are organized into blocks that they know that's that's what we do wonderfully something which is a masterful piece of that kind to the structure arbitrary or another victory speech some structure in his victory but a lot it's soo fun our chairs and tables arbitrary not skin and feminine why are they a master and images for students one thing that we are really try to get it back which leads to first become very compatible ten years across a whole bunch of different language it's pure in the text Emilie unless there's a correlation or animal chapters or so I stress that don't ask everywhere and everywhere it is declared that's we found no inclination to subpoena the tree we also asked him if he can to paddling at me it's a stupid act say people this can happen and the animals in their input to the ticket for artifacts that step there seems to be awful lot of our patrons when we see that is to see how lame that Hollywood is a sign genders two new words that mental image are twenty seven favorite example the word giraffe so a crashing in German didn't have a word the giraffe until relatively recently for obvious reasons you're a teenager at to talk about so then the French village Africa they see giraffes taken back with this wonderful new weren't sure at this mythical creature and Russians and Germans want to talk about giraffes to study by the French word track in German it's using the same spelling the same after that system adds that the French years Eve and that way say anything with it yet the end is likely to become an inch or two giraffe becomes an inward journey and use it if enough of that system in anything with a consonant sound and it gets that's going to Pierce it becomes a masculine noun the same word adopted about the same time to do differently which has an assigned based on these principles of convenience which was that in French I know the opening and laugh course the DL with right here a good question Michael Lyons could actually speak of the relative vocabularies for example most epic fifty seven words for snow or one night few winners he would kill for a Spanish is a really straight forward relatively simple way which consists of one word one thing in the least seems to be useful all kinds of work around an audit of the spinning of old timers I'd rather have it in English and Spanish Michigan austere of stopping the sort of like when you're trying to say I just did go but at the mains way when Elaine which is spoken in lots of different locations lamb on a plane which is breaking down weighing on lots of different professions speak the same language that swelling which is at the bigger her up at school you can you can use those actors to predict how big a look at the images have the Spanish is a very rich language it was simple kind of character and that way and I have him in all cases where we'd clerics fifties we also honor I said oh I eating and we are talking bout left and right into the two respective speaker Dr Siti in some cases you just have to know is present with her sailor you don't use left and right into the EU sports star it's if you have to say only curator I write it might be too late it's the one to avoid any kind of anti cute in that seat develop new new packets of powder for regional sailors would use the cardinal points yes they would say let's also not be a real usually with respectively so I took the wind direction said that sets a lot of it but it added so that their richness there's a cone could to help you develop a cat in a few things that you wanna talk about it and see what I think about it more fine detail on but also points out but at least about if your child ringtone which has the effect thing that happens distinctions and so it appears that this pursuit for consideration should be put to the bar at the way then at the next group of folks with learning a language after reading those distinctions and next an expert at the concrete find it it doesn't go to infinity if it seems like you different cultures have attended the that's enough words thanks when the present not the case now we know alot of words coming I know honey you know that is probably some number of English you know the sort of a college educated English person will have X number were at there there are numbers like that I don't actually numbers of words to that it isn't an impossibly which is easy to this question with which houses were to be speaking with differing which can lead to different pieces together you can create a public yet weren't that's what it is simple you can see snow that's been peed on that's a new word because you can put all those bits together and it's the fifty words for snow it's really if we can agree well so don't well let's go there there are fifty works but I think it presenting me that he said Eskimo snow words increases it interesting question what does the word and what makes this to say that one which keywords for anything so funny words for snow does English that is to have one waits we do we all sat down to slash its the there she and here's to more words for this year's couple at whispers to me the question about it and vocabulary and categories and says this is prompted by percent by year and illness Luke who is asking whether it be done the orientation to Colonel contractions that you use Australian average the posturing of Persian languages do you think very carefully at the dance to that money we get a lot of the sling which is so are rapidly disappearing because the picture to get them a link to their village um so the idea is do these categories nations survived a shift to another language asked her what I saw him up around us and people alike but here's the match but ass I was there I only ever heard that one uses the word right and never left it when people are getting directions in English perhaps on instead of using leftover I feel sick to his nurse at its best but what they do instead is the point to the correct direction and just ringing general incorrect or actions is very important but it's all thanks to some it is already getting see the likes of think of it and I am it's not there and play in and checked the brigade than I like the two thousand miles away that's an important part of the communication it is something a hat that this is a baby heart problem to solve I was cared for it is people ask Leary from and to set some unusual and there isn't speaking with an American accent in with a TV speak so that was in the air on TV or what and where where right from the people would say at eight a m from California but that's insufficient you have to tweet interaction in which youth so I had a great laugh at this problem which way to your points to California from I keep York to go around the wood I went to do was go there as varied as the crow flies are due to three areas and so the first few times and assess question is required to play I pleaded in consistently making people understand shifty character I was really trying to hide from him where was that even I didn't know which would be very real war I was actually not the street so that if a little while for me to settle simple with clique city it's just use a gesture is paid an interim strategy in which you think on their children with TTP that they would retain this gestures that you think that the way BP adopt the most small together or did you see that as the stages of labor to cultural shift what you think that those hang on for awhile we doing just that we don't carry my stuff for example in English for speakers workshops are from left to right the times the same for speed at this than we did this family that we never say Tuesday is left of Winston or still have lots of things to do left the party of no use terms left and right to talk to I'll be getting gesture that's the path so it's conceivable that a pattern can be very strong jokes and just are not assist him in the language and that would deal with it here's a check something else keeps a lot of the couple imitation questions Jeremy police's free wheeling with cheap slut but what will for rules language for example when Gary has no dinner and pronouns and earrings are just sucks to know and he nodded your head Jason us burst is you have any examples of thoughts or experiences that cannot be for us and wanting to soak it in the sets were twirling towards the horizon of this continent the report so on clearly there lotsa at this last step in the world that we can discover you can add a link which doesn't call this category said on the case of carrying an inch languages that don't have to bear on isn't the case that to finish speakers are on the epoch of retreat use by randomly bumping into once in awhile so that it appears in India finish speakers blowing I need to get out of the parents to buy lunch which is even though it's not mine time the cases like that it's acquiring that these widgets this is a study by Alexander dealer he did this to the east of the study he asked and it's willing to teach English and Hebrew the same question are you a boy or girl this I think it's to be kept on any I had all kinds of clever ways of asking us to reply air I using the terms plain girl and nine which he would have the piles of pictures of boys and girls and humid that you take all the girls and one Tylenol the boys in the coming another pile you eat a couple or a defeat in six years here's a picture of the year go an eclipse at the present very very heavy gendered language in the words are used to it which is kind of an intermediate case and finish this region so what are the odds that the kids get that first they discover firstly that they themselves are a boy or girl and then indicates and then image actually pay off the tube out Marlins at there is this Department of Defense that it takes you beyond the discomfort pedigree if it's a good sign so that's that that's kind of lovely example of how plane which contains the Department of time are things that are not expensive only which have lots of thinking lately just at the back or any kind of spatial asking so cute that the game at an antique shop I and you want that one no no that one of the day bleeding it's very very hard to specify exactly which one you want everything these would be cool if that is a foot to the southeast that's right and also lots of love Aaliyah like experiences that are hard to express them too the content of this wonderful example he says he can it's very easy to express that high def not been shy in language it's very hard to express the sound of clarinet weeks each color to the sky that some leopard so there's some kinds of things that seem to be much more suitable or linguistic creamy it's we have but there was at the present we couldn't be more question from you in one community so huge that it takes be a good CD this chair to two to three percent so this is a follow up certain to that question about what experiment which looks deep expected and this is going back to you jump right in at auction in two thousand and six what do you believe that you cannot put his youth group in Britain for at least tried to prove or experimented on a number of things for what you believe about certainly wish that you cannot well I think what I would like to see yes at what's the real hard to capture anyone expect he is a set of relationships at eighteen all the different sub systems or so it's one thing to go in and say well the spatial system despite this the temple system like this gender systems like this but I hope these things are actually working together in any actual natural speaker a language they are using all of these things and so I really love to be able to do it's actually start putting pieces together and my sense is that when you're not looking at just one what little time to bring actually a system to get there a much more complex differences were each activity right now can't mention that it the site and see what it will take to people to mention this and system level difference is that those two into a tool thats what im looking like I didn't know how I can do it you ever get to that question do you see the field of linguistics living in the picture I was to suspend experiment on the last ten years down the gospel of linguistics has turned a PhD studies that's really sad because it is and it's just becoming a much quicker discipline and actually expect the technologies and creaking and aren't are standing at least get to see the snow at keep updated to mind you know that in mind it either it it opens up all kinds of questions people ask for no relates to how society is to serve blame to manage your curiosity in your performance for us and other scientists don't ask you you going to bring in circle time together and how did your curiosity and performance the aspect play out and going to bring and what happens well it's that I have a dinner in the eighteen learning another language is like exploring their world I continually in the steam see no question it with exploring the world is to go to the world so that you can think of as you know going into the country or at going even to get have to get into the country that they're doing a benefit to the defense has become a status thing and C I see a totally different world than in Britain and has that same favorite experience for people in the lake the trouble to world has a different set of social movements and different set of respected as they carry when you go to North first real York and in the city don't usually drive car shaped like a banana um says feel about your performance aspects of a very unusual focus that about it was great it was really just a center and the internet many years ago and is used up at some fans and built this giant banana people that he was made to Beatrix and demand a statement we all climb inside really care intimidating at the camp and that villagers banana such an attractive thing that no one would refuse a giant yellow calling in and camp and we all jump out of intent to steal the Peter snow the I feel great future science the word the the the the the new law mm loony it it the