At IPRA 2010, three human rights analysts and activists discuss the extent to which peace researchers can advance the fulfillment of human rights while exploring the dynamics and overlaps of theory and practice.
Human rights goes beyond the concept of being a mere theory, and as its advocates across nations continuously develop and refine strategies to raise awareness of both particular injustices both locally and globally, the challenge in peace studies remains.
Together, Lisa Natividad and John Ondawame will talk about their efforts to address the human rights violations affecting the indigenous people of Guam and West Papua, while Khan will discuss the challenges and opportunities in protecting human rights of vulnerable groups globally.
Danielle Celermajer is Senior Lecturer for the Department of Sociology and Social Policy and Director of the Asia Pacific Masters of Human Rights and Democratisation.
Author of The Unheard Youth: Poverty and Human Rights, 2007 Sydney Peace Prize laureate Irene Khan is the first woman, first Asian, and first Muslim to guide the world's largest human rights organization, having served as Secretary-General of Amnesty International.
Dr. Lisa Natividad, Guahan Coalition for Peace and Justice president, communicates a strong message against the negative impact of U.S. militarism on her island community and the issue of human rights violations of the indigenous Chamoru people with the denial of their right to exercise self-determination.
The long years of armed struggle in the independent state of West Papua have eventually resulted to a peaceful dialogue that is now embraced by 90 percent of its people.
From having been a believer in armed struggle to being an active promoter of peaceful dialogue as a viable alternative pathway to conflict resolution, John Ondawame, is the Representative of the people of West Papua and Vice Chairman of the West Papua National Coalition for Liberation.
Rights that belong to an individual as a consequence of being human. The term came into wide use after World War II, replacing the earlier phrase natural rights, which had been associated with the Greco-Roman concept of natural law since the end of the Middle Ages. As understood today, human rights refer to a wide variety of values and capabilities reflecting the diversity of human circumstances and history. They are conceived of as universal, applying to all human beings everywhere, and as fundamental, referring to essential or basic human needs. Human rights have been classified historically in terms of the notion of three generations of human rights. The first generation of civil and political rights, associated with the Enlightenment and the English, American, and French revolutions, includes the rights to life and liberty and the rights to freedom of speech and worship. The second generation of economic, social, and cultural rights, associated with revolts against the predations of unregulated capitalism from the mid-19th century, includes the right to work and the right to an education. Finally, the third generation of solidarity rights, associated with the political and economic aspirations of developing and newly decolonized countries after World War II, includes the collective rights to political self-determination and economic development. Since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, many treaties and agreements for the protection of human rights have been concluded through the auspices of the United Nations, and several regional systems of human rights law have been established. In the late 20th century ad hoc international criminal tribunals were convened to prosecute serious human rights violations and other crimes in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. The International Criminal Court, which came into existence in 2002, is empowered to prosecute crimes against humanity, crimes of genocide, and war crimes.