The honorable Robert M. Gates delivers the keynote speech at the Halifax International Security Forum hosted by the German Marshall Fund.
The German Marshall Fund of the United States (GMF), in cooperation with the Government of Canada, has launched the Halifax International Security Forum in Halifax, Nova Scotia to address the top global security challenges facing the transatlantic community. This major international conference is the first of its kind on the North American continent.
Robert M. Gates
Dr. Robert M. Gates was sworn in on December 18, 2006, as the 22nd Secretary of Defense. Before entering his present post, Secretary Gates was the President of Texas AM University, the nation's seventh largest university. Prior to assuming the presidency of Texas AM on August 1, 2002, he served as Interim Dean of the George Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas AM from 1999 to 2001.
Secretary Gates served as Director of Central Intelligence from 1991 until 1993. He is the only career officer in CIA's history to rise from entry-level employee to Director. Secretary Gates served as Deputy Director of Central Intelligence from 1986 until 1989 and as Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Adviser at the White House from January 20, 1989, until November 6, 1991, for President George H.W. Bush.
Craig Kennedy has been president of the German Marshall Fund of the United States (GMF) since 1995. Under Mr. Kennedy’s leadership, GMF has focused its activities on bridging U.S.-European differences on foreign policy, economics, immigration and integration, and domestic policy. Toward this effort, he has provided GMF with a strong infrastructure throughout Europe, opening new offices in Paris, Bratislava, Brussels, Belgrade, Ankara, and Bucharest to complement the work being done in Washington and Berlin. Mr. Kennedy began his career in 1980 as a program officer at the Joyce Foundation in Chicago, becoming vice president of programs in 1983 and president from 1986 to 1992. He left the Joyce Foundation to work for Richard J. Dennis, a Chicago investor and philanthropist. During this same period, he started a consulting firm working with nonprofit and public sector clients.
Peter MacKay is Canada's national defense minister. He is also a member of parliament for Central Nova, Nova Scotia, a seat he has held since 1997. He is a member of the Foreign Affairs and National Security Committee and serves on the Treasury Board and Planning and Priorities Cabinet Committees. Before becoming defense minister in 2007, Minister MacKay was the country's minister of foreign affairs. He also played a leading role in the creation of the Conservative Party, which merged the Progressive Conservative Party and Canadian Alliance Party. Prior to pursuing politics, Minister MacKay worked as a lawyer, serving as the crown attorney for the Central Region of Nova Scotia, appearing regularly in provincial, family, and Supreme Court.
United States Secretary of Defense Robert Gates argues that despite some lingering tensions between the US and Russia, there are "a lot of opportunities" for cooperation between the two nations. He explains that while the US and Russia have many shared security interests, "Russia seems to have two perspectives on its relationships with the rest of the world today."
Thanks Foratv. Bobby Gates has a different shade of gray after WikiLeaks gtave the public the truth of Military mischevious behaviour. Recently American soldiers in Afghanistan sport killing fingers for trophy, like in Nam ears on a string. Gates makes war a natural evenr like hurricanes, time for him to retire, the lies are not convincing anymore. Drone killings are daily. Private armies like blackwater, who is fooling who!Paranioa is like cancer from Washington to Ottawa!
Mr. Craig Kennedy:Welcome. My name is Craig Kennedy, Minister MacKay, SecretaryGates, distinguished guests, welcome to the Atlantic Gateway of Canada.Welcome to the first Halifax International Security Forum. We are very pleasedto have all of you here with us today. I could go through the list of guests andrecognize the important figures that are here from the United States Congress,from German Bundestag, from military of multiple countries, but frankly we areunder a little bit of a tight timeline and I think it would probably take a half hour todo it service. I just want to thank all of you for being here.We are very pleased to host what promises to be a world-classevent here in Halifax. When you look at the agenda the tough issues that thisconference will address, the really first-rate speakers that we have for everypanel and the quite extraordinary group of participants that are here thatrepresent not just North America and Europe but really start to underscore theglobal nature of the Transatlantic partnership with participants from India, Japan,Korea, New Zealand and elsewhere.I want to start by just thanking first the government of Canada fortheir extraordinary help in every part of the arrangements and especially TheMinistry of National Defense. They have been wonderful partners and also[INAUDIBLE] which is our local partner here in Halifax. They have done anextraordinary amount of work in pulling this together.Why Halifax? And why here? Well, as some of you know GMFalso does a conference each year in Brussels, the Brussels forum. A number ofyou have participated. The first year we did it there was a request that weinclude the foreign minister of Canada who turned out to be quite anextraordinary participant in his probing questions from the audience puttingeverybody on notice that Canada wanted to play a significant role in thetransatlantic relationship. About nine months ago Peter MacKay came to us andasked if we would be willing to try to put together a conference of this sort of thesame kind here in Canada and especially here in Halifax.It turns out that there's many transatlantic security conferences butnone of them really on this scale are held in North America. So for us it wasreally an opportunity to do something new to fill what we saw as a gap and alsowork closely with a political leader that we admire greatly. So now it is mypleasure to introduce the Minister of National Defense and the Minister forAtlantic Gateway Canada, Peter MacKay. Peter.12 2The Hon. Peter G. MacKay:Thank you very much, Craig, Secretary Gates, colleagues,Ambassadors and friends welcome to Halifax. And Craig in addition to theendless preparations and work that goes into a conference of this magnitude,has also been speaking to local realtors about buying property here in NovaScotia so I am particularly grateful for that.Welcome all of you to my home province. It's my great privilege tobe here as part of this wonderful, we hope, annual event, the Halifax securityforum. And in partnership with the German Marshal Fund who are renowned forbringing together great minds, great thinkers for an open frank discussion anddialogue on the issues of security and beyond that matter to all of us and ourfellow citizens.Having grown up in this province and being a cabinet ministerresponsible for Nova Scotia and cabinet, I have to say it was a very wise decisionto meet here in Halifax. In fact, while the GMF hosts the annual Brussels forumevery year in spring, which is a terrific event, I had the opportunity to first attendas Craig alluded to in 2006 and I recall distinctly being there and beingenraptured with the discussion and yet there was something I must say thatstood out that was a little disappointing at that time because the discussion hadbeen framed very much and I say this respectfully to everyone in the room, EU,America, America, EU was the expression I constantly heard in encompassingthe discussion broadly.And Javier Solana, who you all know well, was the keynotespeaker. And I said to myself then and I'm so happy to see that it's beenculminated here that we have to expand that dialogue and expand theparameters beyond geographic descriptions and I was particularly listeningclosely to Craig's introduction and I heard him say North America. And that is awonderful change in the dialogue. And we, of course, as Canadians are used toliving with a giant neighbor to our south. How could we not be? We also have ofcourse incredibly deep ties to Europe. Canadians are very much aware and intune with our two founding nations, France and the United Kingdom on the otherside of the Atlantic. So when the transatlantic relationship is narrowed down byothers to Europe and America it doesn't always ring true to Canadian ears. Andso we take great pride in knowing that Canadian's contribution to transatlanticcooperation as a steadfast reliable friend and ally is recognized. This city'scontribution, Halifax, the contribution to the relationship here is marked with bothpride and tragedy. During the first World War, December 6, 1917 Halifax wasdevastated by an explosion of the fully loaded French munitions ship, the MontBlanc and a Norwegian ship [INAUDIBLE] 2000 people lost their lives that day.9,000 were injured in the greatest man made accidental explosion ever recorded03 3and the largest explosion up until Hiroshima. This city's history is also marked byits incredible naval traditions and pride. The Bedford basin just outside thisbuilding was choked with ships massing for convoys to supply our alliesthroughout both World Wars and thousands of our citizens made their waythrough this port to go on to greater glories and contributions significant to manyof your countries.Our government is very proud of Canada's past and presentcontributions and emphasizes Canada's modern day robust role. And as we lookforward to making the Halifax international security forum one of the moresignificant contributions the place where friends and allies meet to discusscommon challenges and bring forward new ideas and how to tackle themtogether. Standing here on the western shore of the northern Atlantic twentyyears after the fall of the Berlin wall where I had the great pleasure to be with mycolleague just a short time ago and some seventy years since the out break ofthe Second World War, we are proud of what we have accomplished togetherwith our allies. Of course in the dark days of 1939 and 1940 and 1941 togethermet a very small group, Prime Minister Churchill and President Roosevelt metaboard the U.S.S. Augusta not far from this port, not far from this shoreAugust 41 to map out the Atlantic charter. Then only a handful of democraticcountries were available and ready to do what was necessary to reverse theoccupation of Europe. Transatlanticism was born out of necessity and todayafter a lot of hard work and smart work and struggle and pain political leaders,soldiers, diplomats and most importantly, regular people, people who havedemanded better, have expanded the community of democratic states, sharedpolitical values right around the globe. The enlargement of our politicalcommunity has been paralleled by globalization of trade and capital flows.As I have said today any change in the security environment of theIndian Ocean or the subcontinent is a matter of consequence for all of us. Thegreat success of our friends in Brazil in attracting investors to their rapidlyemerging market receives attention around the world. The transatlanticism thatwas once a concept shared by countries like Canada, United Kingdom and theUnited States has gone global and today is shared by nations on every continent.The potential for this global transatlanticism is enormous and the best way toharness the potential for greater partnership is to come together, is to listen, beopen minded and get to know each other better. In this Halifax forum we aregoing to take part in a worth while and productive exercise of listening and I hopethat it will be as it has always been in a German Marshall forum, a chance wherepeople can speak openly, honestly, among friends. And that everyone here isseeking the same fundamental goals for their country and their region, economicgrowth, security, political freedom and stability. And, of course, NATO is thecornerstone of international security. And I never get tired of telling people the20 4importance of NATO. It is, in fact, of course, the most successful military alliancein the history of the world.As NATO goes through the concept and the exercise of creatingnew strategic concept over the next months, it is important to keep in mind thatthis is not your father's NATO or your mother's NATO. This is, in fact, a newsecurity environment with new challenges and today's challenges are, in fact,tough. Some of the challenges that confront us may be similar to those that havecome before us but others of course are brand new. Religious extremism, it findsits outlet by exploiting terrorism, continues to be a challenge. The risk ofproliferation of nuclear weapons to non-state actors and indeed the quest fornuclear weapons buy states that have no business other than to threaten theirneighbors and increase their regional clout. The security risks of climate changeincluding competition for energy resources and the distribution do exist. AndNATO, of course, has changed to meet the challenges that it is required to do. Itis conducting military operations thousands of miles from its headquarters. It'scooperating with international partners like never before and there are lots moreto do.International security cooperation must adjust just as internationalfinancial institutions have adjusted and have to do the right thing with respect tothe global financial crisis. As we do here before the security crisis equivalent tothe economic crisis affects us all. There are current severe gaps in the way inwhich we manage global security issues, the institutions we work with weredesigned for another era when security threats were mostly state based andincreasingly the nature of the challenges we face will be related to state failuresand vulnerabilities in such areas a shipping lanes and cyberspace. Internationallaw is similarly largely designed for state centered worlds and it has not keptpace with the global reality of non-state actors that are proliferating, networkingand in some cases attacking.An example of where the law is clearly defined is the arctic wherethe effects of climate change are opening new opportunities for shipping andresource extraction. The UN convention on the law of the sea defines an orderlyprocess for the demarcation of sovereignty claims that reduce the prospect ofcompetition. And that is not the case elsewhere. What we do know is that wehave pirates again, not the pirates of movies or bygone eras but pirates thatcertainly threaten the security of entire continents. Clarity is needed if collectiveaction is to take precedence over competition or conflict. Not only are the actorsdifferent but the nature of the conflict of course is much different than it has beenin the past.Traditionally military operations in post conflict stabilization havebeen distinct phrases separate from peace treaty or armorists, we need to take anew attack, a new framework for the use of military force because in fact military12 5is only part of the answer. In today's more complex environment thesimultaneous applications of all elements of national power, military and civilianare of course required. This framework needs to take into account militarycooperation, development, economic investment and political security working inan integrated fashion or what we in Canada call a whole of governmentapproach. And we need to do so quickly to develop these new approaches inoperating as well as in training, doctrine in policy and in planning. And NATOcohesion has always rested on an understanding of equitable burden sharing.However, the nature of transatlantic and transnational threats is such that it isdisproportionate shared of the burden of what falls in some cases on a relativelysmall number of nations. And within the transatlantic community trends indefense spending demographics suggests that unless this is addressed seriouslythis problem will only worsen. I returned from Afghanistan just this past weekand it was another trip where I can tell you I was left feeling very inspired andsomewhat in awe of the degree to which we it rely on a few to defend the manyand the sacrifices of those men and women by all our countries is a soberingreminder of the cost of service. I similarly just a few short moments ago camefrom a very stirring ceremony to award sacrifice metals to Canadian soldierswounded in action or to those who had lost loved ones to family members. Againit speaks to the degree of commitment of citizens in our country to provide thesecurity and environment that we all need to enjoy a peaceful way of life.So whether through NATO or through our own service of military,political or economic activity we know that we can accomplish more workingtogether. Admissions around the world through allegiances and alliances ofdemocracies that have in fact, taken on the burden in the past, we share a greatburden. But let there be no doubt NATO will be judged by what it does not inAfghanistan today but in the months immediately to follow. And this is more thanjust about strategic concept, its about strategic truth. Meanwhile as new types ofthreats emerge, new and emerging powers will arise along with new risks and oldchallenges of traditional state rivalries, just as they have continued since thecreation of the nations state itself. New centers of regional gravity will expand,greater international influence that traditionally accompanies growing prosperityand its already happening. There are opportunities, there are risks inherent inwhat strategists regularly refer to as the future multi polar world and theopportunities are plain to see, new markets have the new potential to create newwealth. And the risks are less evident but theyre there and their serious. If theworld's new centers are run by authoritarian business friendly governments thatdraw neighbors toward them they will eventually present a fundamentalchallenge to the principles that everyone in this room believes in. And so theworld's new centers are run by democratic business friendly governments thatdraw neighbors toward them, we will all benefit from that approach.04 6The United States, of course, has a unique role as a country withthe largest gravitational pull. It must always understand its special place andtake its leadership role seriously as it does. But smaller countries in thetransatlantic alliance have important roles to play as well. The transatlanticismthat was defined in the dark days of the Second World War ultimately broughtpeace and stability and wealth to Europe and to much of the world. Canada isproud of the role that it played and continues to play. But if the collective we,those that hold and defend the values of freedom and democracy are to play arole in shaping the worlds future beyond European borders then we have to do abetter job. And it starts with listening, exchanging ideas and coming together aswe have today. And just as Canada won't get used to hearing EU, America, I'msure that the time will come that many countries, too, will want to join us in thisdialogue. The Transatlantic alliance at its very core is an alliance of values. Thatis something to cherish, to be proud of and to defend. It was born from necessityfrom the dark days as I said, the Second World War, and global transatlanticpartnership is born from common sense. In the simplest terms the threat that wewill confront in the next decade or two will demand new ideas, new strategies,new partnerships and its my hope that the Halifax international security forumwill be a venue from which we can come together in the future to make sure thatwe get it right.I'm proud to be a part of this committee, this hosting committee foryou in Halifax. I'm proud to be standing in the city of Halifax with all of you. Youare most welcome, and I am proud and particular and honored to introduce myfriend and a friend to Canada and a friend to all of us, for his second time in NovaScotia please welcome Secretary of Defense,Robert Gates.The Hon. Robert M. Gates:Thank you, Peter. It's an honor to be here for the first Halifaxinternational security forum. When minister MacKay invited me to this gatheringsome months ago I was all too pleased to accept and not just because theaccommodations are a little more plush than at the former military base in CornWallace where we held the RC south meeting last November. I must tell you,you can't tell it today but it can get very cold in this part of the world this time ofthe year. A special thanks to the German Marshall Fund for putting this eventtogether. The Marshal Fund since its inception nearly four decades ago hasbeen an important source of expertise on the transatlantic relationship. Theimportance of these bonds was reinforced to me ten days ago when I addressedthe Reagan library's 20th anniversary celebration and the fall of the Berlin wall.That celebration and the life and freedom of firming events we commemoratedwere a reminder of the long standing cultural, political and security bonds20 7between the two continents and more importantly a reminder of what can beachieved when we stand together to advance common interests and confrontcommon threats.As this conference is the first of its kind in North America I'd like toaddress some of the security and defense issues that are especially pressing tothis continent and in the western hemisphere writ large. At the summit of theAmericas in April President Obama urged a new sense of partnership to fulfill thepromise of prosperity security and justice for the people of this hemisphere. Hecalled for a sustained engagement based on mutual respect, common interestsand shared values, a message that I would like to amplify today. Thisengagement and this partnership are so necessary because the emergingsecurity challenges we face are increasingly interconnected. And thenontraditional threats require a collective approach. These challenges fromnarco-trafficking to natural disasters require an uncommon degree ofcoordination among the national security, homeland defense and criminal justiceagencies of our governments. As these threats do not fit into the neat, discreteboxes of 20th century organization charts. In the next few minutes I will discusssome of those security challenges, highlighting promising areas of cooperationand offering some thoughts on the way ahead particularly as relating to humanrights and the role of our militaries. In all of these areas the United Statesaspires to be a partner of choice in the Americas, a friend of every nation andevery person seeking a future of security, dignity and freedom.A starting point for this discussion is the long standing relationshipbetween the United States and Canada, the subject of my meeting this afternoonwith Minister MacKay. I know that Afghanistan is on everyone's mind, with thepresident soon to announce his decisions on the way ahead for the United Statesand our partners. In Afghanistan the Canadian military has more thandistinguished itself in battle in some of the most dangerous parts of the country.Canada has been a major contributor to the international military coalition withmore than 2800 troops currently deployed plus a strong commitment to supportfuture development and governments efforts. It was Canadian soldiers alongwith our British, Dutch, Danish and [INAUDIBLE] allies who largely held the linein the south before U.S. reinforcements arrived in strength earlier this year. Withmore than 130 fallen heroes among the highest of coalition members on a percapita basis the Canadian Army has certainly paid the price and bore a heavyburden in Afghanistan. We call on our other allies and friends to do what theycan on behalf of this noble and necessary campaign, an effort that will as I saidlast week require more commitment, more sacrifice and more patience from thecommunity of free nations.The formal defense ties between the United States and Canadadate back to 1940 when President Roosevelt and Prime Minister King signed the12 8Ogdensburg declaration and established the permanent joint board on defense,an arrangement of lasting value to this day. Last year I was pleased to joinMinister MacKay in Colorado Springs for the 50th anniversary of the founding ofthe North American aerospace defense command. Festivities that marked thehalf century of shared commitment by the United States and Canada to protectour continent. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union and especially since theattacks of November 11th [INAUDIBLE] has evolved from focusing almostexclusively on protecting a nuclear first strike to confronting an array of diffusedthreats to our homeland from land, air and sea. In 2006 the United States andCanada signed an expansion on the Norad agreement to include a maritimewarning mission. Last December we signed a new emergency managementcooperation agreement and the U.S. military prepared as needed to providesupport to security efforts for the 2010 winter Olympics in Vancouver. We havealso been encouraged to see Canada taking a more active security role acrossthe hemisphere and globally as well.Canada has provided police training in Mexico to combat the drugcartels. Canada has helped build the capacity of Jamaica's counter terrorismoperations for a unit of the Jamaican defense force that thwarted an airlinehijacking in April without any casualties. Canada has demonstrated hemisphericleadership hosting the 2008 conference of defense ministers of the Americas inBing, a gathering which in addition to fostering dialogue among neighbors ondefense and security matters created a region wide working group to improvecooperation for disaster assistance. And internationally last year a CanadianAdmiral led combined task force 150, a multi national fleet comprised of about adozen war ships that patrol the waters off the port of Africa for pirates andterrorists. Canada and the U.S. are both arctic nations. An item on our bilateralagenda today and a subject of a panel at this conference. We share an interestin developing more ice breaking ships for mobility and improving domainawareness to support search and rescue in light of increased tourism up north.Even as the U.S. resets relations with Russia we will work with Canada to ensurethat increased Russian activity in the Arctic does not lead to miscalculation orunnecessary friction.I should also use this occasion to say that the United States stillremembers warmly the prompt and generous Canadian response to HurricaneKatrina, a package consisting of war ships, helicopters, 900 troops includingcombat engineers and thousands of pounds of relief supplies, which brings me tothe first of several shared security challenges we face in this hemisphere, thethreat from natural hazards. Katrina was the most devastating of a number ofnatural calamities that have hit the region in recent years. As our neighbors fromthe north and south came to the aid of the U.S. during those dark days theresources of the U.S. military are available, when the people of this hemisphere04 9are struck by natural disasters when the response of the U.S. Navy and MarineCorps and Haiti after Hurricane Ike last year, the work by U.S. Army and AirForce personnel providing life saving aid just last week after devastating floodingand mud slides hit El Salvador. The melting of the polar ice cap in the Arctic plusthe frequency and intensity of weather events in this hemisphere with thecorresponding need for military humanitarian assistance missions calls for agreater attention to the security implications of climate change. For the first timeour quadrennial defense review at the direction of the U.S. Congress willexamine the U.S. Armed Forces ability to respond to the impact of globalwarming. We also know that the unprecedented freedom of movement in thishemisphere while providing enormous economic benefit also allows moreopportunities for dangerous criminal elements to exploit gaps and weakness ingovernments and sovereignty within and between our nations. This situationcreates an alarming potential nexus between the traditional source of narcotraffickersand the traditional surge of narco- traffickers and the emerging threatsposed by international terrorist networks.The same means and routes used to transport drugs could also beused for dangerous weapons and materials. Drug runners, for example, still uselow flying aircraft but they are also building homemade semi-submersible vesselsthat can carry tons of cargo and are very difficult to detect in open waters. InColumbia the FARC showed how an outlaw group can use ungoverned space torearm and retrain while funding operations shoot a narcotics trade. But theprogress Columbia has made in recent years with U.S. assistance also showsthat it is possible to govern and ultimately defeat these threats and to do so in away that is consistent with respect for human rights and the rule of law.In all when it comes to interdiction and law enforcement we cannotexpect to make headway on narcotics without a multi-facetted, multi-nationalcomprehensive approach to the problem. We need to work together to fortifyjudicial institutions and the rule of law. In this way these nations will be betterprepared to counter these pernicious threats. In concert with other U.S.government agencies, the NGO community, Canada and other nations, we canassist in providing the breathing room needed for Western Hemispheredemocracies to develop their fullest economic and political potential.The role of the Department of Defense, and it is a limited role, is toprotect and monitor trafficking while providing the training and equipment thatallows our partners in the region to pursue drug gangs and stimey the flow ofillegal narcotics.The United States for its part is committed to reducing its demandfor illegal drugs and also to stopping the flow of illegal guns and cash across oursouthern border. Toward this end The President has made it a priority to ratifythe illegal trafficking and firearms convention. To deal with the narcotics trade10and other challenges in addition to our bilateral assistance efforts, we are alsolooking to encourage more collaboration among other nations that traditionallyhave not worked together on security matters. The U.S. government and ourCaribbean partners are organizing the Caribbean Basin Security Initiative, amulti-national effort to combat illicit trafficking with other international partnersinvited to participate as observers.Some $45 million has been directed to build upon best practicesand develop new modes of cooperation in the Caribbean. One area of focus willbe counter narcotics as drug gangs under increasing pressure in Mexico mayseek to route more of their product through the Caribbean. U.S. SouthernCommand hosts the annual Tradewinds Exercise with a number of Caribbeanmilitaries, the goal being to improve regional coordination in areas such assearch and rescue and drug interdiction.An example of what can be achieved, recently Mexico, Colombiaand Guatemala working together with the U.S. Joint Interagency Taskforce Southdetected, monitored and then captured a semi submersible craft that wascarrying several tons of drugs. We are encouraging partners from outside theregion to participate, many with a keen interest in stemming the flow of drugs totheir own countries to participate in these efforts. The United Kingdom, France,the Netherlands and Spain, for example, have liaison officers at the JointInteragency Taskforce South and participated in Operation [INAUDIBLE] Royaleand Operation [INAUDIBLE] Venture.The Department of Defense is prepared to provide militaryassistance when needed and where appropriate. The progress on complexsecurity challenges requires a commitment of resources and political will from ourpartners, as well. Working with Mexico and Central America supported by fundsappropriated by Congress, the merit and initiative it seeks to support efforts tocounter drug trafficking organizations.We're truly grateful for the support we've received from Congressenabling these efforts. We think first of Mexico's northern border but Mexicossouthern border is equally challenging. Efforts to help our Central American andCaribbean partners to counter drug trafficking organizations will focus onimproving their ability to monitor and to react to violations of their maritimedomains.Before closing I would like to make two further points. First, Ibelieve that it is not only possible but it is imperative that we take on theseshared threats in a way that is respectful of human rights and human dignity.Violent crime represents a major threat to security in much of the WesternHemisphere. The police forces in a number of countries are overwhelmed andoften outgunned creating a culture of insecurity. Some countries have assignedlaw enforcement responsibilities to their military forces. Strong human rights11programs are vital when conducting military responses in such complexenvironments. It is clear even to this veteran of CIA and Cold War that securitygains will be illusory if they lack the public legitimacy that comes with respect forhuman rights and the rule of law. The U.S. Military has faced some of theseissues in Iraq and Afghanistan in the treatment of detainees and in the protectionof civilians. We have much to learn from each other in the human rights realm.As I mentioned earlier Columbia has recognized the need toobserve these norms in its campaign against the FARC and despite setbackshas shown increased determination to root out human rights violations. Andeven as Mexico battles ruthless drug lords committing unspeakable crimes, theMexican government is working to address rights concerns through trainingprograms in its armed forces. The United States has made it a point to integratehuman rights instruction into our joint training and education in programs such asThe Western Hemispheric Institute for Security Cooperation and The DefenseInstitute for International Legal Studies.The second and related point pertains to the role of the U.S.Military. I am addressing these issues as Secretary of Defense it is imperative tokeep front and center that the military is in the supporting, not a lead role indealing with most of the problems I've described this afternoon. The work of U.S.regional combat and commands in security operation in building the defensecapacity of partners remains essential. To be sure there are certain capabilities,manpower, logistics, technology, that only the military can provide. Indeed, manyyears ago U.N. Secretary General Dag Hammarskjold said in reference topeacekeeping that it is not a soldier's job but sometimes only a soldier can do it.Nonetheless, there is some discomfort among civilian NGOs and agencies aboutwhat is seen as an increasing role by the U.S. military in development,humanitarian assistance and, in some cases, public diplomacy. On a number ofoccasions I have emphasized the importance of rebuilding and modernizing thecivilian instruments of U.S. national security apparatus and I have warnedagainst a creeping militarization by default of some aspects of our foreign policy ifthe deficiencies arent addressed. President Obama and Secretary Clinton havecommitted to achieving a better balance between defense capabilities on the onehand and civilian development and diplomacy capacity on the other.This shift applies to homeland security capabilities, as well, such asthe Coast Guard and Borer Patrol. For much of the Western Hemisphere theissue is more the proper role on authorities in the military relative to lawenforcement, politics and civil society. These are difficult matters and I believethat gatherings such as this one can go a long way towards gaining a betterunderstanding of these issues to benefit the people of this region.In working through these issues and in confronting the range ofvexing security challenges that this century has presented us, the nations of this12hemisphere should know along with our transatlantic partners that the UnitedStates is committed in President Obama's words to a new chapter inengagement, one that is comprehensive, sustained and reflective of theaspirations of the people of the Americas. I thank the German Marshall Fund forthe opportunity to speak today and I look forward to taking a couple of questions.Thank you.Mr. Craig Kennedy:I think we have time for one or two questions. Who wants to askthe first one? Right over herAudience:Thank you so much. My name is [INAUDIBLE] from Harvard.Thank you so much, Mr. MacKay for setting this important forum. I think it is agreat remark that it is a North American forum. Maybe next year it will beAmerica's forum. My question goes to Secretary Gates. Secretary Gates, youstarted with mention of fall of the Berlin Wall which started a new era. So far wecan still see the residue of the Berlin Wall mentality of the decision making inboth countries, in United States and Russia, a country which you mentioned oncein your presentation. You also mentioned that there are a lot of nontraditionalthreats which require cooperative efforts. [INAUDIBLE] To which extent do youthink Russia might or could become an ally of the United States and thecollective west in attacking those threats? Thank you very much.