U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan, After School Matters Chair Maggie Daley and Judge Glenda Hatchett join parents, children, educators and policy makers from around the country to discuss the benefits of afterschool programs and ways to ensure that all children and families have access to these programs.
Secretary Arne Duncan
Arne Duncan is the ninth U.S. secretary of education. He has served in this post since his confirmation by the U.S. Senate on Jan. 20, 2009, following his nomination by President Barack Obama.
Duncan's tenure as secretary has been marked by a number of significant accomplishments on behalf of American students and teachers. He helped to secure congressional support for President Obama's investments in education, including the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act's $100 billion to fund 325,000 teaching jobs, increases in Pell grants, reform efforts such as Race to the Top and Investing in Innovation, and interventions in low-performing schools. Additionally, he has helped secure an additional $10 billion to avoid teacher layoffs; the elimination of student loan subsidies to banks; and a $500 million national competition for early learning programs. Under Duncan's leadership at the Department, the Race to the Top program has the incentives, guidance, and flexibility it needs to support reforms in states. The Department also has focused billions of dollars to transform struggling schools, prompting nearly 1,000 low-performing schools nationwide to recruit new staff, adopt new teaching methods, and add learning time. He has led new efforts to encourage labor and management to work together as never before, and their new collaboration is helping to drive reform, strengthen teaching, create better educational options, and improve learning. During Duncan's tenure, the Department has launched a comprehensive effort to transform the teaching profession.
In support of President Obama's goal for the United States to produce the highest percentage of college graduates by the year 2020, Duncan has helped secure increases in the Pell grant program to boost the number of young Americans attending college and receiving postsecondary degrees. He has begun new efforts to ensure that colleges and universities provide more transparency around graduation, job placement, and student loan default rates. With the income-based repayment program introduced during Duncan's tenure, student loan payments are being reduced for college graduates in low-paying jobs, and loans will be forgiven after 10 years for persons in certain public service occupations, such as teachers, police officers and firefighters.
Before becoming secretary of education, Duncan served as the chief executive officer of the Chicago Public Schools (CPS), a position he held from June 2001 through December 2008. In that time, he won praise for uniting education reformers, teachers, principals and business stakeholders behind an aggressive education reform agenda that included opening more than 100 new schools, expanding after-school and summer learning programs, closing down underperforming schools, increasing early childhood and college access, dramatically boosting the caliber of teachers, and building public-private partnerships around a variety of education initiatives. Duncan is credited with significantly raising student performance on national and state tests, increasing graduation rates and the numbers of students taking Advanced Placement courses, and boosting the total number of scholarships secured by CPS students to more than $150 million. Also during his leadership of CPS, the district was recognized for its efforts to bring top teaching talent into the city's classrooms, where the number of teachers applying for positions almost tripled.
Prior to joining the Chicago Public Schools, from 1992 to 1998, Duncan ran the nonprofit education foundation Ariel Education Initiative, which helped fund a college education for a class of inner-city children under the I Have A Dream program. He was part of a team that later started a new public elementary school built around a financial literacy curriculum, the Ariel Community Academy, which today ranks among the top elementary schools in Chicago. From 1987 to 1991, Duncan played professional basketball in Australia, where he also worked with children who were wards of the state.
Duncan graduated magna cum laude from Harvard University in 1987, after majoring in sociology. He was co-captain of Harvard's basketball team and was named a first team Academic All-American.
Duncan is married to Karen Duncan, and they have two children who attend public school in Arlington, Va.
U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan says that schools should offer more afterschool activities to students, and that there should be more opportunities for students to engage in the community and visit colleges. He proposes using the 10 billion dollars of Title I money to fund these projects.
Learning that takes place in schools or school-like environments (formal education) or in the world at large; the transmission of the values and accumulated knowledge of a society. In developing cultures there is often little formal education; children learn from their environment and activities, and the adults around them act as teachers. In more complex societies, where there is more knowledge to be passed on, a more selective and efficient means of transmissionthe school and teacherbecomes necessary. The content of formal education, its duration, and who receives it have varied widely from culture to culture and age to age, as has the philosophy of education. Some philosophers (e.g., John Locke) have seen individuals as blank slates onto which knowledge can be written. Others (e.g., Jean-Jacques Rousseau) have seen the innate human state as desirable in itself and therefore to be tampered with as little as possible, a view often taken in alternative education. See alsobehaviourism; John Dewey; elementary education; higher education; kindergarten; lyceum movement; progressive education; public school; special education; teaching.
Correct me I am wrong, but during the presentation I didn't hear exactly what needs to be done, so California can set higher educational standards for other US states. Arne Duncan's inspirational speech calls for rewarding great teachers, creating more opportunities for disadvantaged youth and for prolonging school hours. All of this is great, but is there is a specific plan on how all of this will be achieved. Ali Abassi has a valid point underlining the low initiative of the schools and universities to reform. If federal government chooses to significantly fund education it needs to provide specific guidelines on how money should be spent. Without a proper supervision and transparency the money will be well wasted.
Government programs do not work.... ever ... every cent sent to the education funds get wasted one way or an other... Public schools still haven't figured out an efficient way to manage the overload of paper work. Schools are not innovative simply because they are guaranteed students each year. There are many many many internal issues the department of education needs to look at before it creates a bigger more difficult system to untangle.
Having 'longer school hours' is probably good in overall but it shouldn't be obligatory. When I was in school, I needed as many hours after school as possible to play sports and do all the homework the teachers piled up on us and eat and sleep.
A friend of mine who teaches at a lower end public school told me how some kids get attached to their teachers and try to stay after school as long as possible because they don't have anywhere else to go due to abusive parents, absent parents, etc. Longer after school hours would benefit these kids searching for a better life.
And kudos to field trips to colleges in the 6th grade. Better to prep your kid up as early as possible which is why Asian parents make their kids study for the SATs in the 6th grade. Even though it may be a bit harsh, look at the results.
Thank you so much, for that kind introduction. I don't know if you wrote that or mymother so I appreciate it, I apologize if my mother sent those notes, it's a real honor to behere and to be in the newspaper today the remarkable progress that California is makingas a state so please give yourselves a round of applause. It's a good way to wake up in themorning and see those kinds of results statewide, I want to begin by thanking the alliancealliance in these kinds of partnerships are absolutely critical and what I have been arguingfrom day one is the school systems alone to get where we need to go, we can't do it byourselves, we need leadership from the top, from the Mayor, we need the businesscommunity, we need the philanthropic community we need a non profit to social serviceagencies, the religious community everyone rallying behind our children, I mean thatvideo did a wonderful job of capturing how critically important is that every sector of thesociety making sure that our children have a chance and that San Francisco is getting somuch of it right, I want to thank that Mayor Gavin Newsom for his leadership and I'd liketo ask that Superintendent Carlos Garcia to please stand and please give him a round ofapplause for all of his hard work. It is really fun to see the sense of energy and thealignment to have all of you here today that makes me very, very hopeful about what'shappen here going forward.Secondly we are trying to build a really, really strong team and I hope I don't get shoesthrown at me here but we've recruited a lot of Californians to be a part of our team inWashington and I just want to mention them Tony Miller, Martha Kanter, ThelmaMelendez, Russlynn Ali, Joann Wise, Bob Schime and Mike Smith California is morethan well represented I would probably get in trouble. But this is a state of many, manyassets and one of those biggest assets is these people and these are people ofextraordinary talents if you guys have lived and worked with them and I couldn't be moreproud of a team we are building people who are passionate, who are committed, who arewithout ego, they see the magnitude of the opportunity, they understand the challengesahead of us but they thrive in those challenges and working together we have a chance todo something very, very special. I wanted to keep my remarks fairly brief and then openup for questions afterwards, I know you have lots of questions but I wanted to start byletting the folks understand the magnitude of the opportunity we have before us. Wehave never had a President like this President, we have never had a congress thissupportive, we have never had resources a hundred billion dollars to work with and wemay not see these kinds of opportunities again in our lifetime and so it's a huge, hugechance to push what I think has to be a dramatic reformed agenda.These resources alone are not going to get us to where we need to go, we are not going tospend our way to better school system, yes money is important, yes money is in veryshort supply here in California and around the country. But investment in the status quois not going to move the ball down the field for all the progress here in California four inten children in the color still don't graduate, there was a lot of work to do here, there wasa lot of work to do around the country and so investing in the status quo is not going to beenough and so we want to couple unprecedented resources with unprecedented reformand Rahm Emmanuel has a great, great line he says never waste a good crisis and we'rein a real time of the crisis of our country you know economic meltdown, the toughesttimes since our depression, California is you know the difficulty of issues you are dealingwith now is staggering but its times of crisis where you can break through and get thatkind of fundamental dramatic change that is desperately needed, as I go through myremarks and I will close with that and I want you to think about how you use these timesof crisis to get where we need to go, so where are we pushing, how do we get better, weare trying to invest at every level of the education world five billion dollars in earlychildhood education and it's a pretty compelling argument that can be made. It's a prettycompelling argument that can be made and that's the best investment we can make andwe are trying to do two things there, we want to dramatically increase access, we have fartoo many children and particular children who don't come from wealthy families, whoenter kindergarten and haven't been read through they don't know the front of the bookfrom the back of the book, I wonder how our best prepared kindergarten teachers in theworld can teach that wide disparity and ability levels when some children are readingfluently and some children barely know their colors so we have to make sure wedramatically increase access, secondly we have to drive up quality and too much of earlychildhood has been sort of glorified baby sitting and we can't be ashamed to say we wantour children with our literacy skills intact and socialization skills intact, ready to hitkindergarten learning and ready to read so I am going to push very, very hard on those.I am going to come back and talk about K-12 more extensively with seventy billiondollars K-12 and then on the higher education side over thirty one billion dollars toincrease access and opportunity and this has been so important to me at a time whengoing to college has never been more important, its never been more expensive as youknow our families have never been under more financial duress so just a huge influx ofresources thanks to the Presidents leadership and congresses support the most moneygoing to higher education since the GI bill and we are trying to make sure that weperpetuate this for the next ten, fifteen years and every year putting billions of dollars andadditional resources into children, stop investing in banks, stop subsidizing banks,continue to drive up Pell Grants and Perkins Loans and tuition tax credits. I worry somuch about not just our juniors and seniors but our fourth and fifth and sixth graders whoare smart and capable and committed because mom might lose a job or dad might take afifty percent pay cut, they start to think the college just isn't for me and those dreams startto die very, very early, we want every child in this country to know that if they work hardif they want to go to college, four year universities, two year community colleges, tradevocational training whatever it might be that opportunity is going to be there for them.We have been critiqued for having too broad an agenda, early childhood, K-12, higher edand I wish we could just focus on one of them it would be much easier but I thinkeveryone in this room knows that you have to look along that education continuum andwe have to push a very, very strong reform agenda in every single one of those areas andso as we put out money particularly in the K-12 side you know billions of dollars forCalifornia in stimulus package we want in return for that massive of investment a realthoughtfulness around reform and everyone here knows that for the progress you readabout today in the paper for the progress seen around the state, this state has a long wayto go in fact that I am worried about some of the places, some of the places I think thestate is going directionally and I want to talk that through. So how do we get better, whatare the set of reforms that we think are critically important.First we want to make sure we have comprehensive data systems, we want to be able tocheck student progress throughout their academic career from the early ages all the waythrough high school then hopefully college graduation, we want to be able to not to losechildren and we want to be able to track students to their teachers to understand howeffective teachers are in helping students learn. We know that there are tremendousvariations in the ability of teachers to move students. Some teachers do an extraordinaryjob are absolute heroes, some teachers are actually part of the problem, we as a societyand we as a state don't know what that correlation is. It was very interesting with theconversations today folks talked about in the state the word that was used with thefirewall, a firewall between student data and who the teachers are. Firewalls aresupposed to protect children from fire, this firewall is part of the problem and I want tochallenge the state to think about this in very, very different ways.You have three hundred thousand teachers in this state, thirty thousand of them take thetop ten percent, thirty thousand of them amongst the best teachers in the world, they aredoing absolutely Herculean work often under resourced, often in very tough communitiesbut sadly no one in this room and no one in this state knows who those thirty thousandteachers are and you can't identify that. You have another thirty thousand at the bottomthey probably need to find another profession where its just simply not working, youdon't know who those thirty thousand are, the only way we start to get there is beingtransparent with data and this state has to find the political will and the courage tounderstand that, all teachers, all principles are not created equally.Secondly we want to think about common college ready, career ready, internationalbenchmark standards and this year I think California can be very, very proud, lots ofprogress, very high standards, always room for improvement but I think California isreally part of the answer here and we are really trying to build coalitions of states to worktogether so that we as a country come up with standards that make sense and I would loveto see California as part of that conversation and part of that coalition because then I canrest easy at night knowing that if California is happy and satisfied, and now the folks arerising to meet California's bar and not being dummied down then as a country we aregoing to get to the right place. One of the problems I have with No Child Left Behind iswe have had fifty different sets of standards, fifty different goal posts all over the mapand where that has lead is to a dumbing down of standards and dumbing down ofexpectations and in far too many states we were actually lying to children, let me explainwhat I mean but luckily this isn't happening that much here in California but because ofpolitical pressure those standards have been dummied down, students who are told theyare "meeting their standards" they think rightly so logically that they are on track to besuccessful and far too many places those standards are so low that children who are"meeting their standards" are barely able to graduate from high school and are absolutelyinadequately prepared to go to competitive university let alone graduate and so Californiacan really play a leading role and drive in the college towards common college ready,career ready international benchmark standards and you are voice at that table would bevery, very important to me, that's also important to think that higher standards don'tnecessarily mean more standards and I think sometimes it's a temptations amongacademics is thicker the book that the tougher it must be and so I want the state to thinkabout do we need more standards or do we need to go deeper, it's the idea of fewer andhigher and clear I think it makes a lot of sense and its something for California to thinkabout as it takes the next step in that journey what that might be.Third and this is just a constant thing I want to come back to talent matters tremendouslyThird and this is just a constant thing I want to come back to talent matters tremendouslyextraordinary difference in students lives, we have seen around the country in the poorestof communities inner-city urban, rural, where we have great teachers, where we havegreat principals and you see students beating the odds consistently in going on to doextraordinary things. As Hydra referenced in my biography I was lucky enough to growup an environment, where children from very tough backgrounds grew up with thehighest expectations and there are set of children I grew up from absolutely you knowdevastated neighborhood, very, very tough families, no money, one is a Hollywoodmovies star, one is a brain surgeon, one was one of my senior managers in Chicago, oneis one of IBM's leaders nationally, why, because they had my mother and others in theirlives who really believed that they can be successful regardless of where they are comingfrom. We have to start to take those models to scale, we have to start to look at thosegreat schools, those great districts that are making a difference, invest in them heavilyand move those islands of excellence, those pockets of excellence, to systems ofexcellence.Education is one of the only professions where we are scared to reward excellence that ismind boggling to me, in every other profession excellence gets rewarded and let me beclear, no teacher, no principal goes into education to make a million dollars, they go inbecause they have the best of motives, they are altruistic, they want to make a differencebut if we can start to identify talent and reward that talent its going to keep that greattalent in our profession for years to come. Secondly we have to think about how we getour best teachers, our best principals to take on the toughest of assignments to go to thosecommunities that have been underserved again inner-city urban, rural, historically therehave been very few incentives and lots of disincentives for folks to do that and want toget people thinking very, very differently about how we get the best talent to the childrenof communities that I would argue have a historically underserved often not for a year ortwo years or five years but for ten, twenty, thirty years for decades, we have to thinkfundamentally differently about that.Third we have areas of critical need, math and science foreign language, I think weshould pay math and science teachers more, I think we should pay foreign languageteachers more, I want to stop talking about these shortages and try to solve them so I wasthinking differently about how we reward excellence, how we get the best and brightestto go where we need them and how where we have areas of shortage, we start to build atalent pool so that children have teachers who know the content, they can instill in themthe love of math and love of science and open up those opportunities for them longerterm. And then finally for schools that are really struggling I think we need thinkdifferently. One of the things No Child Left Behind did wrong, did some things right,some thing wrong, one of the things I don't like is I thought the instrument was too bluntand that there are many, many schools who are labeled as failures and the story is very,very different amongst those schools, some of those schools are actually improving everyyear some of those schools are making real progress and very, very tough environmentsand we label that school as a failure it was actually getting better, it is demoralizing, it iswrong against the tremendous disincentive for folks to go into those communities and sowe did think differently about that, you have other schools that are struggling by gettingbetter and we need to get teams to support them, but I want to stop for a minute and thinkabout what I have been talking about is the bottom one percent of schools, lets say wehave about hundred thousand schools in this country, ninety five thousand rounded up toa hundred thousand, think about the bottom thousand schools.California I think it is about ten thousand schools think about the bottom hundred, thoseschools where sixty, seventy, eighty percent of students dropout, their dropout factories,those schools that year after year don't just have absolute test scores or much biggerbelieve in gain but their gain scores are very, very low, students are falling further andfurther behind every year with that small sub set of schools not the ninety nine percent,the one percent of the bottom I think we have to think very differently and we have tothink about bringing a new team for teachers, new principals who have the highestexpectations who can really challenge the status quo there. We have done lots oftinkering around the edges, lots of things around the margins and unfortunately year afteryear after year we as educators become part of the problem, we perpetuate poverty andwe perpetuate social failure and we don't give students a chance to take that next step andso I want us collectively to think about ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å“ think about that strategy and get California tothink about leading that. Where we are at as a country but where the state is that isabsolutely fascinating to me, its an absolute fork in the road, there is never an opportunitythat's going to come our way in our lifetime again like this, we will never again and I amlittle biased we will never again have a President and a first lady and a Vice President andhis wife who is passionate about education. The President and the first lady were notborn with silver spoons in their mouths, they came from very humble beginnings but theyare leading our country and are the leaders of the free world today because they workedso hard and got a greater education.We will never again have a hundred billion dollars of new money coming into education.Their leadership, the support of congress, what we have lacked is not just resourcesthough, we have lacked the political courage and we have lacked the will to do the rightthing by children, our dysfunctional adult relationships have hurt children far too manyplaces.On top of the hundred billion dollars in stimulus we have unprecedented discretionaryresources. Five billion dollars in a raise to the top fund, five billion dollars in schoolimprovement money, five hundred million dollars in teacher incentive fund goingforward up to five hundred million dollars to replicate the Harlem Children's Zone whatwe call in promise neighborhoods and communities around the country. Well north often billion dollars in discretionary money, I heard from Secretary Paige, I think he hadseventeen million dollars, we have ten billion, think about the opportunity, well let me bereally clear this money will come and this money will go, we want to use this money asleverage to drive reform, that will change public education in this country for decades,this is not a play for the next two, three, four years, eight years, this is the play for thenext ten, twenty, thirty years and what I would ask California and all of you collectivelyto think about is do you want to lead that change, or are you going to retreat, we aregoing to work with a set of states, we are work with the set of districts, we are going tolead the country and what we call the race to the top, I think its far too many places wehave been engaged in the race to the bottom and California has been the leader in somany ways whether its Hollywood, whether its high education, whether its SiliconValley, California used to the lead the country in K-12 education but not unlike thecountry California lost its way, somewhere along the line, what you have is a moment ofopportunity, you have a moment of crisis, use the crisis to drive the kind of change youneed, we would love to have California literally shaping the nations agenda in drivingthis race to the top. I am concerned that this might be too much change for Californiaand that California might retreat and take a step back and watch history passing by so thisis a seminal movement in education, I want you to take a minute and think about that,you will not have collectively this kind of opportunity for decades, I promise you that,think about taking this time and think about taking this opportunity to make the kind ofchanges we do, we need to make and if we can do that we can change our life, that ourchildren's lives for ever, we can make sure that every child has a chance to fulfill theirdreams, we can really eliminate the achievement gap, we can dramatically drive upgraduation rates, we can try and eliminate job loss, we have to do it now, we have to do itover a real sense of urgency, we want to do whatever we can to partner with you, wewant to work with you but I am going to challenge all of you to find the courage, to findthe political will to do the right thing, to make the tough calls in going forward lead thecountry where we need to go, thank you so much for your commitment, thank you somuch for your hard work, thanks for having me.On behalf of this great city of our San Francisco we really want to thank the Secretary ofEducation, Arne Duncan, Nuestra casa is your casa. Our house is your house thank youfor bring here. Keeping in the fine tradition of the San Francisco Unified School Districtof hearing student voice we have this great opportunity so Hydra.Good afternoon Secretary Duncan, we are all honored to have you here today, my nameis Dennis Sze and I am a Mason Scholar and a senior at Balboa High School. This fall Iwill be attending Manhattanville College in New York, at school I have played threesports, basketball, swimming and wrestling. Outside of school I am in this great programcalled summer search. This program is a leadership development program that offers lowincome students, year round mentoring two full scholarships to summer programs andcollege counseling. With summer search I went to Utah for wilderness expedition andlived with a host family in Italy. Through this experience I became a leader, I am moreopen minded and committed to giving back to my community. My peers who were notinvolved in these activities were less engaged, they didn't take positive risk instead someof them turned to drugs, dropped out of school and very few actually plan to attendcollege. I know you were introduced to youth programs at a young age by your mother'safter school programs so my question is as a nation how can we incorporate powerfulyouth development and leadership skills into our public schools, especially for thoseyoung people who are in need of the most support.I don't know if that's a question or a call to action. I like it. A couple of thoughts. Themore at the earliest ages possible we can engage our students in activities and enable tosee themselves as leaders and role models and its been so interesting to me historically, Iam a big fan of service learning, I am a big fan of programs that really give our students achance to be leaders, historically public school students are always the recipients ofservice and the private school students will be givers of service and so we have to sort ofreverse that and get our eight and nine and ten year-olds or eleven year-olds, our highschool students understanding what those kinds of opportunities are so we can't doenough of that and there are so many different areas where our students can find theirvoice, find their passion, find their skills and that motivates them, that keeps them inschool, that keeps them thinking about the career in going on to college and so there aremany, many ways you can do that one of the things you hit on to me that was soimportant as you talked about what was going on during the summer and one thing I havebeen arguing as we have to think very, very differently about time, I think our school dayis too short, I think our school week is too short, our school year is too short. And moretime doesn't mean more of the same I think our schools have to be open longer hours butI think our schools in the after school hours should have a whole host of activitiesprovided by the community, drama and arts and sports and music and chess and debate Iknow San Francisco is doing a lot to open their schools GED, ESL family literacy nightsin the summer not more the same but getting students from the city into rural areas,students from rural areas into the city, opportunities to engage in the community,opportunity to visit colleges, I think our fifth and sixth graders all need to get on collegecampus and start to think they can be a part of that and so the more we can think verydifferently about how we use time and to push on this one again I am just not trying to fillideas we have over ten billion dollars in title one money that we are putting out states innew districts, ten billion dollars in new money and I would argue title one moneyhistorically has been the area where we have not spent as wisely as I think we shouldhave and so I love to see those kinds of opportunities become the norm rather than theexception thinking about time differently in using title one dollars to create thoseopportunities, I think we will make a huge difference in students lives like your andcongratulations to your hard work.Good afternoon Secretary Duncan and I am very honored to be here and have thisopportunity, my name is Bella Berry I am graduating from Galileo High School here inSan Francisco, I am also a Mason Scholar and a summer search student as well and I amconcerned about the high school curriculum about how teachers rush through so manytopics within one school year to achieve high test standards but students are left behindand they don't have the time to grasp the material. In addition the material covered is notrelevant to tests such as the SAT. When I took the SAT I didn't recognize any of thematerial from my classes which leaves myself and many students in a state where we feelunprepared for these tests and for college. Not to mention the cost for the SATpreparations are very un-meetable for many families so I wanted to know what is yourvision of how high schools can provide preparation and clear pathways from a highschool to college.These are all great question or couple of different pieces, one you talked about sort ofrushing through the curriculums or time again is part of the theme getting more timeduring the school day after school to do what's important is I think a huge step in the rightdirection. Secondly actually we worry about a narrowing of the curriculum, I worry a lotabout music and arts and other things being lost as we sort of focus just on testing and sowe want to find ways to broaden that out and as we talk about sort of fewer, higher clearstandards again the idea of more depth rather than breadth not testing to a hundreddifferent things its really raising the bar and it goes that every child ready to go on tocollege or ready to go on to a career and continuing to raise the bar which again I thinkCalifornia has done a good job on that, but can continued to improve is very, veryimportant. The final thing I would say is just we have to raise expectations and that I wasconvinced in Chicago that our expectations for our teens were far too lower over highschool students, I was convinced in that because we survey them and that's what theytold us, year after year after year they were asking to be challenged more, I will just giveyou one quick story that I think relates to this, one of the things I was most proud of isthat we double over the past five years and a number of students taking and passing APclasses. But the fact of the matter is that if you want to be honest to yourself the studentsin that fifth year were not twice as smart as the students in that first year then in fact onmy watch, on our watch children historically would deny those kinds of opportunities andnot surprising the numbers had doubled and tripled where African and Latino young man,those are students who normally don't get to those higher level classes so we talk aboutnot being prepared I think a big answer is adding rigor, challenge the students more and Iwould love to see every student taking some kind of college level class before theygraduate, AP or whatever it might be and the more we provide those opportunities themore students are going to really believe that they can be successful in college so I thinkwe have to ultimately raise their expectations.My name is Alberto Calle first of all I want to thank you Secretary Duncan for thisopportunity and I welcome you personally to San Francisco, I will be graduating fromGalileo High School and I am also a summer searcher. My dream is to attain RibbonCollege in Wisconsin this fall and I am actively seeking for more financial assistance toscholarships to achieve this dream. My backup plan is to attend City College if Ribbonbecomes impossible. In school I am passionate about economics, literature and AmericanGovernment. I have two questions for you but they are quick, first, I hear you are abasketball fan, who wins the pick up games President Obama or you.What's the second question?My second question discipline, responsibility and commitment are the skills I havelearned in soccer and these have held me to succeed in school and have given me theconfidence for the next steps after I graduate, how has basketball influenced your careerin life choices?Couple of questions so when President and I played we had some fin together, I willleave it at that so we have really a good time. Obviously you come from a sportsbackground I think this has been so helpful and just the ideas of teamwork and I havebeing unselfish and working towards long term results have been hugely important inshaping my life and again for me it was sports but for other kids its going to be art ormusic or dance or drama, chess and debate and the more we provide that many optionsfor high school students and lets students find their path, I think we can't do enough ofthat but actually you didn't ask but I want to go back to the first part of your question thescholarship money you got to get a huge, huge deal that I talked about thirty one billiondollars on the table now we are trying to dramatically increase Pell Grants, PerkinsLoans, tuition tax credits, I am trying to make two year community colleges I think theyhave been hugely under valued resource and Martha Kanter is really going to drive thatwork for us, make that a much, much stronger option now going forward but we want tocontinue each year to increase those resources, there is actually a fascinating debate goingon now, we have talked about stop subsidizing banks, we have been administering loans,take that money and to give it to our students that would save us a minimum of ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å“ wethought it was sort of commonsense I'm understanding how controversial it is now so thisaudience gets it but we are actually going to have a real battle there in congress with itbut if we do that, if we make that move in how we change, how we pay and how we takecare of our students going to college that will save us a minimum of four billion dollars ayear going forward so we continue to keep Pell Grants on par with you know rates ofinflation and actually try and stay a percent above that and so the more we thinkdifferently about how we use our resources we can do that without charging one moredollar from our tax payers so I get and hit so hard and so we are trying just letting youknow we are trying to fundamentally think that what business we are in, we want to be inthe business not a subsidizing banks but making sure college is absolutely accessible andaffordable for every student who wants to go and if we can get this passed of 2010 budgetwe will be able to basically mandate that and doing it in perpetuity going forward butthere is a lot of balance right now and that's a very, very serious debate going on and Iwould love you guys to be able to think about and to weigh in on it ultimately.Secretary Duncan, I am the first generation student who has the privilege to graduate highschool and go into college with Federal Financial Aid but we both know that sixty fivethousand students that are undocumented are graduating from high school each year butare ineligible for Federal Financial Aid. So many of my peers are in this situation, theywork hard, they are extremely successful, but they are undocumented. One in particularwas accepted to five prestigious college including Santa Clara University, SeattleUniversity and Knox College which is just outside of Chicago. Unfortunately he isdependant on private scholarships but they are not closing the financial gap causing hisfuture to be in limbo. Where do you stand on opening up more opportunities forpromising, for these promising young students?This is obviously just another area of a lack of political will and really thinking back wasabout what's right for children and for children who have worked hard who happen to beundocumented to basically deny them the chance to go on to college is crazy and if wedon't allow them to and if they can go on to college and get a good job and support afamily that's the American dream and if not basically we are going to end up you knowjail cells, what's going to happen is our priorities are fundamentally wrong so two things,first we are trying to push states very, very hard to at a minimum charge in state tuition tothose students and in many states that's not going on they are charging them sort of therate for foreign students which is three and four times and more which makes itabsolutely inaccessible and then secondly I am a big proponent of the dream act andworked very closely with Senator Durbin back home in Illinois and I think with thisPresidents leadership this is an area where we have to fundamentally change course as acountry and give children wherever they might be from, wherever they were born and achance to fulfill their dreams.