San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom is a strong advocate for sustainable urban planning and green business practices; he lead San Francisco to join the Kyoto Protocol, created significant incentives for solar power installation through the GoSolarSF program, and is working on an ambitious plan to make SF the "Electric Vehicle Capital of the U.S."
He discusses his ideas and plans for shaping the growth of cities during these turbulent times.
Stewart Brand is co-founder and president of The Long Now Foundation and co-founder of Global Business Network. He created and edited the Whole Earth Catalog (National Book Award), and co-founded the Hackers Conference and The WELL. His books include The Clock of the Long Now; How Buildings Learn; and The Media Lab. His most recent book, titled Whole Earth Discipline, is published by Viking in the US and Atlantic in the UK.
Gavin Newsom was elected as the 49th Lieutenant Governor of the State of California on November 2, 2010. His top priorities are economic development and job creation, improving access to higher education, and maintaining California's environmental leadership. Prior to being elected Lieutenant Governor, he served two-terms as Mayor of San Francisco. Under his leadership, the economy grew and jobs were created. The City became a center for biotech and clean tech. He initiated a plan to bring universal health care to all of the City's uninsured residents. And Newsom aggressively pursued local solutions to global climate change. In the final days of his second term as Mayor, Newsom led a historic drive to host the 2013 America's Cup, one of the largest and most prestigious sporting events in the world, which is expected to generate roughly 8,000 jobs and $1.2 billion for the local and state economy.
Relatively permanent and highly organized centre of population, of greater size or importance than a town or village. The first cities appeared in Neolithic times when the development of agricultural techniques assured surplus crop yields large enough to sustain a permanent population. Ancient Greece saw the creation of the city-state, a form also important in the emergence of the Roman empire as well as the medieval Italian trading centers of Venice, Genoa, and Florence. After the Middle Ages, cities came increasingly under the political control of centralized government and served the interests of the nation-state. The Industrial Revolution further transformed city life, as factory cities blossomed rapidly in England, northwestern Europe, and the northeastern U.S. By the mid-20th century, 3060% of a countrys population might be living in its major urban centers. With the rise of the automobile came the growth of suburbs and urban sprawl, as factories, offices, and residences erected in earlier periods became aged and obsolete. Today many cities suffer from lack of adequate housing, sanitation, recreational space, and transportation facilities, and face problems of inner-city decay or burgeoning shantytowns. Local governments have sought to alleviate these problems through urban planning.
Compressed air is not an energy source. It is, at best, a mediocre energy storage mechanism. In case of cars, it's a pretty poor storage mechanism. Why? Thermodynamics... again. When gas is compressed, it heats up. Part of the energy used to compress the gas is in the heat. In order to store the gas in compressed air tanks, this heat has to be removed by cooling. So now all that heat energy is lost (unless one had e.g. an endothermal chemical process coupled to it that can use some of this heat... but the options are rather limited).
And that's only the first loss... there is still the decompression part! When the now cold compressed gas runs through the car's engine (which is really nothing else than a compressor running in reverse), the gas cools down very considerably. So in the end, we have cold decompressed gas, which has a much smaller volume than originally at room temperature when it entered the compressor in the "compressed air station". Of course, one can use part of that cold air for air conditioning. One can also heat it with a gasoline or natural gas burner on board the car... which is kind of a hybrid concept. The energy stored in the chemical fuel would be used with fairly high efficiency in this case... certainly a lot more efficiently than in a combustion engine. The resulting engine is just a lot more complex than the simple compressed air engine.
So how useful is this concept? Depends on how the energy used to compress the air is generated. It certainly makes next to no sense to use conventional thermal power plants for this purpose. However, intermittently available solar or wind energy might be close to ideal since the peak power is either going into some sort of storage or is lost... The same would be true if we expanded our nuclear power plant capacity far beyond base load like the French. In that case, because there is excess energy that would be lost otherwise, the compressed air for transportation could come for almost free. Of course it still requires a non-trivial infrastructure investment to build the fueling stations and the update to the electrical grid.
I wonder if Gavin Newsom’s concept in treating cars as cell phones by purchasing miles instead of minutes would in a way limit unnecessary driving by charging extra fees as it happens when you go over minutes on your plan. Great idea of electric cars and parking spaces with sensors and rechargeable meters, however, needs to be adopted around the states; otherwise San Francisco will become a secluded community.
Good evening. I am Stewart Brand from the Long Now Foundation. That is a long walkover here. I will say it right at the start that Mayor Newsom is a fan of Twitter and so,questions that come in via Twitter will be sorted by his staff and us and the really goodones will make it up to the stage. You will Twitter him at: GavinNewsom (spells out).Two other announcements: Basically, one, as usual when we are here at the CowellTheater, there is a reception at the Long Now Foundation office, shop, museum, andparty pad, just over there. I should mention that the next speaker, Michael Pollan, willnot be here but will be at the Herbst Theater, downtown in the Civic Center on May 5th.Mayors are the most powerful politicians in America, right up there with countysupervisors and that may be one of the reasons that of all the political entities in America,cities pay the most attention to each other and learn the most from each other. It ishelpful if you have a young mayor who is still learning. It is helpful if you have a mayorwho likes to travel and it is helpful if you have a mayor who can tell you the things he hasbeen learning which we will get tonight, Gavin Newsom.Thanks, Stewart. Thank you, thank you all. Thanks. I hope that, I was young when Istarted but I am not so young anymore. Anyway, let us do it. Thank you very much forthe opportunity to be here and I thank all of you for taking the time to be here today andif I sound a little more exhausted than normal, it is because I started my day about 2:30this morning. I was out in Washington, D.C. and got up to catch an early flight. I waslast night, or rather yesterday, at a conference in Washington, D.C. and I had the greatprivilege and pleasure to get on stage and debate the future of the car industry and thefuture of GM and Chrysler. Little that I know that the audience was primarily lobbyistsfrom GM and my comments apparently, they did not go over that well which made mefeel very good about what I had to say. So I may find myself talking a little bit moreabout that because it does, I think, like in the contexts, comments that I wanted to maketonight and then Stewart is going to come up and we will have a chance to do a Q&A butI do want to focus on the issue of sustainability as appropriate in the contexts of whatbrings you together here for this series of conversations and in that contexts, try to drilldown the issues of sustainability and environmental framework and talk a little bit aboutwhat we are doing in the context of the words Stewart just advanced as it relates to what Ihave seen happening across, not only in the rest of the United States, but around theworld.If you can come back just briefly to 2005, San Francisco hosted a conference. It was firstof its kind; 2005 marked the 60th anniversary, the founding of the United Nations, here inthe city and county of San Francisco. It also marked the fact that the United Nations forthe first time in U.S. history decided to have its World Environment Day in the UnitedStates of America. It was not easy to find the U.N. and to peak its interest inenvironmental stewardship in the last decade or so but they thought the anchor of the60th anniversary would compel them to consider, at least San Francisco in the context ofconvening the World Environment Day. We challenged them to think differently aboutthe World Environment Day and rather than just hosting an afternoon session, we said ifwe can host a series of discussions, in fact hundreds of discussions over the course of theweek, we think it could have some impact. We invited mayors from around the world.In fact, over 120 mayors from every continent imaginable flew out to the city and countyof San Francisco for this one week of exchange in ideas. Al Gore himself showed up atU.N., rather showed up in Union Square and showed his video. For the first time, manypeople had heard about the slide show and the video but no one had seen it and heunveiled it there to a few hundred folks and we started to really frame a newconsciousness in the environmental movement. Again, 2004, 2005, things tippeddramatically. It was not that long ago that we were still debating, though some still are,but we were significantly debating the issue of global warming and climate change andour consciousness was really beginning to evolve.We had the opportunity to set forth principles, what we called accords and we sat downand we try to hammer this on. You can imagine 120 mayors from around the world, it isnot easy to agree on a set of policy principles, but we ultimately agreed on 21 policyprinciples and the reason we thought it was appropriate to have mayors and the reasonthat the U.N. agreed to invite mayors was, for Stewart, it is self-evident and I hope tomany of you, self-evident and to me, was rather important because it was less self-evidentat that time and that was 2005 also marked and again people have disagreed if it was2004 or some have said it was really 2006, 2007 but we also celebrated a milestone ofsort and the U.N. advanced it at that conference, that for the first time in human history,more people in the planet are living in urban centers and cities than in rural and suburbanareas; that we had hit that point for the first time in human history, now more peopleliving in cities.A million to a million and a half people every single week moving into urban centers.This is mass urbanization. Hundreds and millions of people will be moving into citiesjust in China alone and India and other parts of the globe; that the fact that the majority ofthe EarthÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s population was there was significant but even more significant is we alsomarked the fact that in 2005, already that 50 or so percent of mankind was consuming inthose cities about 75% of all of the EarthÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s natural resources and polluting the Earth by anequivalent amount. Those numbers only are going to grow. And so, it marked arevelation for me and a consciousness for me that if we are going to get serious about theenvironment, you are going to get serious about sustainability, you have got to look at theenvironment very differently than the way I looked at it when I was raised here in SanFrancisco, where my father used to take me on trips to the Tuolumne River and that iswhat I thought was the environment when he was working for friends at the TuolumneRiver or when we went out and did photographic work to save the mountain lions whichhe was very passionate, down at Hunter Liggett, another place in this great state. Thatwas to me the environment or going up to the Redwoods was the environment.The idea that now the environment was in urban setting challenged a lot of us and as aconsequence of those accords in that consciousness, everything now I am focused on,almost exclusively, not everything, almost exclusively, is now the notion ofenvironmentalism in an urban setting and changing the consciousness around what weconsume, how we consume and what we distribute or what we throw away and what wewaste and the like; and so we set forth after 2005, some very ambitious goals. Now, SanFrancisco has always been a leader on so many issues and the environment was noexception but the bar was pretty low. We have done some good things but we hardlywere in the vanguard of environmental stewardship internationally. In the United States,arguably we were certainly in the top tier but we were not doing as much as we shouldbe; and so we set fort a strategy what we called San Francisco Forward to get very, veryserious and as a consequence, we have made a lot of progress. Again, the bar is a littlehigher but I still argue, remarkably and relatively low.Here is what we have done and here is what we are doing and here is, I think, how itrelates to the conversation hopefully we will have this evening. We set forth some veryambitious goals to dramatically look at out renewable energy portfolio to begin to look atwhere our energy consumption was coming from, be it transportation sector, be it thebuilding sector. We looked at our waste distribution in terms of recycling rates. Westarted looking at public transit versus private vehicles and the like and we started makinga series of policy advancements that today include the following, the most aggressivegreen building standards of any city in the United States of America. You want to build aprivate construction. You want to build anything in San Francisco, you have got to meetLEED certifications. Most cities, many cities in fact San Francisco is one of the firstrequire that from municipal purchase or rather municipal building. So, for example, webuild a recreation center, it has got to meet LEED certification.Now, we are requiring anyone that builds any new home or new office or any commercialor industrial building in San Francisco to meet those same LEED certifications. It goesup to LEED gold in just a few years. We got very aggressive as it relates to bio-dieseland trying to get out of the diesel business and we converted our entire diesel fleet intobio-diesel. In fact, we not only did it for public transit and people movers at the zoo butwe finally got public safety involved in this. We have fire engines running on bio-diesel.We have ambulances running on bio-diesel. We do not know of another city in theUnited States that has now advanced as comprehensively that strategy. We generate a lotof that bio-diesel through a grease cycle program, fats, oils and grease. We actually pickup fats, oils, and grease from restaurants and from universities and some large companiesin the Bay Area and we pick up those fats, oils, and grease and we recycle them and weput them back into this what we call grease cycle program which we also think is a modelfor the rest of the country.We reached much deeper in terms of our recycling strategies and finally reached what is,a number that we never thought imaginable, 1996 with 35% recycling which by the waywas pretty good. Few people had ever seen 50% anywhere in the world and here wewere we had some ambitious goals to get to 70% and we finally hit that last year. Thehighest recycling rates anywhere in the United States of America and we well on our wayto hit 75%, we hope by the end of next year. That is why we got aggressive aboutStyrofoam take-out containers and ban them. That is why we got aggressive obviously.Jared Blumenfeld who came up with this idea when he visited, Stewart to your point,and my head of the Department of Environment when he visited Ireland, came up withthe idea of the plastic bags which ultimately was advanced by Ross Mirkarimi at theBoard of Supervisors.The original idea was just to charge for the bags and ultimately, that failed and thenegotiation with the Grocers Association. They passed some legislation behind our backsto preempt cities from putting forward a fee and as a consequence, we decided just to banthem outright in reaction to their audacious act. We do not deal well with lobbyists andsay, our lobbyists do not do well with us in San Francisco but we usually always do theopposite. The lobbyist shows up and I remind them it is over. We also went after waterbottles, billion of them a year end up in our waste stream. We believe they, based, noone has been around to prove it but again, it is 10,000 years to what, everything is 10,000years, these water bottles apparently take 10,000 years to biodegrade. A billion of them ayear in California alone end up in our landfills and I do not know, you are smart people,the idea that you buy Aquafina and Dasani, it is tap water.It is Coke and Pepsi that are in the business of tap water and they actually put it in bottlesand then they charge you five to ten to fifteen thousands more for that same liter waterthan it would cost you if you just turn on your tap and the insidious part of it is that wateronce it is put in their bottle is not as regulated as the water that is in you tap. So ourwater is safer than the water you are getting in a water bottle yet I know many of youwere driving over here drinking out of one of those water bottles because we are just soconvenient and we are so convinced that somehow, or it is may be it is not the watercoming from Hetch Hetchy but it is my pipes from my old apartment and that is thereason I need to do it. There are other strategies perhaps we can talk about that later, butthat is why we got so aggressive on those areas, all part of our recycling and theconsciousness around that. We got very aggressive about solar as well. When you goaround the world, you will realize we are not doing much on solar at all and when youhave a country like Germany doing more, then the United States on solar something isabsolutely wrong particularly a city like Berlin that does more per capita than any othercity in the world.Then, I do not know if any of you have been to Berlin, I do not think they have seen thesun in the last two decades in Berlin. It was siding rumored in the early 1980s yet theyare doing more in photovoltaics than anyone and so in San Francisco, we decided toraise the bar and we have now the most aggressive rebate strategy, local rebate solarprogram of its type anywhere in the United States of America and we also have thelargest municipally owned solar program anywhere in the United States which bar ishere. We are going to raise it even further next month. Actually in two months, we willbe doing a new installation that is going to be even bigger than the Moscone Centerinstallation down at the Sunset Reservoir, this extraordinary installation that will raiseagain the level of consciousness around solar. We have seen, by the way, almost a 400%increase in backyard solar installation since our incentive program just nine or so monthsago. It has been a phenomenal success and I encourage all of you to participate in thisprogram. We have also been very aggressive as it relates to this electric vehicle strategyand again, that was my comments and the reflection of my comments with General Motors.GM came out today with, guess what? Their new SUV. You think, I think, I was makingthat up. They came out with their new SUV. Is it any wonder that Obama representingthe largest shareholder now in GM, the American people would say and I think it isabsolutely appropriate as a shareholder, you should have shareholder rights say, with alldue respect, Mr. Wagoner, it is time for change was not just a tag line in the campaignand we need to move in a different direction because the proposal and I read the plan.Jennifer Granholm was none too pleased, the Michigan governor, I think she isspectacular by the way and I appreciate, she is in a tough position as governor ofMichigan; she was not too pleased either with my comments and Jennifer said, "Well, noone, none of these politicians that are criticizing GM or Chrysler have read the plans."So I made sure before I got in to the seminar to read the plan and I read it and by the way,I do not know if you knew this, in the plan, it does not just talk about your money to bailthem out, it talks about foreign governments doing the same and six-plus billion dollarsthey are counting on from other countries. That is in their plan and they are very proudof noting that in their plan by 2012, they are committing to have fourteen differentmodels of hybrids and you will say, that is pretty good until you think for a moment,wait a second, hybrids came out in 1900 in '96 and 1997. That is yesterday's technology.That is hardly tomorrow's technology. That is not game-changing technology. It is theoldest adage in the world.I think it was Michelangelo who said it. It says, the biggest risk is not that you aim toohigh and miss it. It is that you aim too low and reach it. And those were the plans rightnow, the Big Three and certainly, GM and Chrysler. You saw the same week that thatchange was made, GM, that in the front page appropriately of the New York Times wasthe announcement that China is moving forward with an aggressive not hybrid strategybut plug in hybrid strategy to electrify their fleet which should have put shivers in all ofour backs because the reality is that is the game-changing technology, is electrifying thevehicle fleet. That is the opportunity to truly promote real energy independence and toget serious about what that means from the environmental perspective, from foreignpolicy and from a domestic perspective in terms of the jobs that we are all promoting,jobs in the future in this green tech sector. Plug-in hybrids. So what is San Franciscodoing? We want to be the epicenter. We want to be the worldÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s headquarters for electricvehicles. I happen to think plug-in hybrids are the game changers, the real game changeris full electric.That is something that I have been promoting for years and I have walked my talk. I wasone of those people that had the original electric vehicle from Saturn which was GM thatthey recalled, the EV1 and they destroyed the technology. By the way, it is the same guywas fired that destroyed that technology and they instead invested in more minivans andSUVs and heavier trucks where they did not have to meet those CAFE standards, thoseCorporate Average Fuel Efficiency standards, so they will have a bigger profit marginand perversely because of the lobbyists and because of our fabled politicians, not justRepublicans, Democrats representing Michigan, we allowed this to happen and so we areour own worst enemy. We have not necessarily seen GM come up with anythingparticularly exciting since that old technology which was tomorrow's technology thatthey are still today not arguing for remarkably. They are rhetorically discussing but theyare not advancing in any meaningful way. So we want to be front and center and so whatwe have done is we are building out an ubiquitous infrastructure and you say, wellelectric vehicles are great but you are having two reservations.If the electricity comes from coal, that is terrible. And, you are just substituting onehorrible thing for another horrible thing and we will talk about that and that is totallylegit. The second argument is range. You know, I got kids and need a bigger car and wego out to Lake Tahoe periodically and I can go one way but I am not sure I can get back.So we need an infrastructure and so we are addressing both this way. We will start withthe latter not the former. Range is a limiting challenge with your car, the one youprobably drove her tonight. You have to have gas, you actually have to go and get yourtank filled up. If you do not you are stranded in the middle of the street, and that hashapped probably to most of us in this room. No different that an electric vehicle. So youhave come to accept we got about a 169 gas stations all across the United States ofAmerica that one is going to be within proximity to the another, or at least within a rangethat can get you where you want to go, from not only points all across the bay area, northand southÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦ Southern California, but across this country. That is the idea for electricvehicles to build out instead of gas stations, switch stations, where you can do exactlywhat you do with your cellphone, when you get a new battery, you can flip that batteryout, replace it with a brand new battery in less time than it takes to fill up a tank of gas.True convenience, now the range issue, is dramatically addressed or you can look at thewhole idea of a car, like you look at your cellphone. And you say what does that mean?Well, first of all I do not know that any of you even know how long your cellphone takesto recharge, because most of you do it at night. Same idea would be with your car.Which fully recharge and then incidentally, it would be recharging when you have thelightest load. So it levels out the load. And that is a light load with a higher renewableportfolio in those off peak hours. That is for the out part of my commentary. But what isan extraordinary opportunity and this is not justÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦ idle speculation, this is happening, it ishappening in Israel. It will be happening in Denmark, it would be happening inAustralia, and Portugal, and I hope it would be happening out here in our own backyardin Northern California is to look at the car like you do your cellphone for a differentreason. You buy minutes, you buy plans, you get prepaid cards, maybe for your kids,you do not want them to have unlimited plans, you have restrictive plans. Imaginelooking at a vehicle like you do your cellphone. And instead of buying minutes, you buymiles, you separate the idea same thing with the phone companies have done.The actual phone is nothing, they are giving those phones away, the hardware, it hasreally become a software strategy. Same idea presents itself if we re-imagine the carindustry and look at it accordingly. Separate the battery and the energy i.e. electricityfrom the actually physical car, how people build cars and have a strategy for software,strategy for electricity, for the oil in this case, as the alternative and buy miles instead ofbuying minutes. That is what a company called a better place is promoting, and that iswhat they are doing with Shimon Perez in Israel as we speak. That is what they are doingin just a few weeks, in Japan when they are building out that first switch station, that Italked about that will be in commercial production. This is an opportunity completelyrethink this industry and this is what is missing completely at GM and Chrysler and thebig three right now. But this is what is happening out here in California, state ofdreamers and doers, of entrepreneurs of innovators, always on the leading and cuttingedge of new ideas. Tesla motor, zero to 60 in 4 seconds completely green, 100% electric,vehicle company. Out here in the south bay, it is happening as we speak completelyallowing you to re-imagine what the old electric vehicle should be about, it is not aboutperformance people say.Now, you have car that performs higher clip than even a new Ferrari or Porsche in termsof how quick and efficient isÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦ with half the moving parts. So it does not have to bemaintained as much or as significantly much more efficient because it has half themoving parts. Electricity where does it come from, well in San Francisco we built outsome charging stations, you can go to our garages, you are going to be going a lot moreplaces in the next few years, we want to build out tens of thousands of charging stationsthroughout our city. I want you to ultimately go to a parking meter, and rather than justpaying more for your parking meter, you may get a little more. In this case, and that isyou can plug in to that parking meter. We are going to be rolling out 25% of all ourparking meters in San Francisco we are moving away from those ugly poles, and we aregetting rid of them and we are going to have boxes and we are going to be the first citywith congestion pricing strategies for parking and new technology where you can actuallyhave sensors underneath the parking space and when the car is there you will know onyour PDA or your home computer or when the car is not there, you will know that thatspace is available and you will actually be able to check it ahead of time and we willprice it based upon strategy of congestion, so the more expensive to part during peek timemuch less expensive off peak time, in order to encourage that off peak opportunity tospend more and to level out that demand model, 25% of them we are starting this year. Itis called SFPark but we want to incorporate a strategy as well, so you cloud plug in tosome of this, parking meters.The good thing from San Francisco is all our municipal energy is completely green andrenewable come from the Hetch Hetchy, it might not have been my first choice, back atthe turn of the century, the dam, the beautiful part of Yosemite Valley, but it was doneand we have been taking advantage of it. All our municipal load, all our lights in the city,are run off that, about 96% to be precise. So every time you park in a garage and youtake advantage of that plug in one of our municipal garages that is green energy, that isnot coal. 50% of electricity in the United States comes from coal, about 19% comes fromnatural gas, 19% comes from nuclear, about 9% comes from hydro, wind, and solar and3% still remarkable of electricity comes from oil. So the more we increase that mix, thenwe will substantially decrease obviously, the negative side of using electricity that doesnot come from a renewable source, the opportunity though is with baseline renewablestandards as California has advanced, where we are currently at 12% of our energyportfolio is renewable, we are going up to 33% by 2020. We are going to substantiallyimprove that mix and substantially reduce greenhouse gas emission accordingly. Onepoint though of good news, even if you use coal generated electricity, it is more efficientthan using oil, because of the point I just made.The efficiency of electric vehicles is dramatic compared to combustion engines. Lessmoving parts, so that efficiency even on a equivalency of coal versus oil. You have alower amount of greenhouse gas emission, or specifically carbon dioxide that is beingomitted in that electric vehicle. Something else that is a myth that somehow they areequivalent, they are not, because the efficiency again of our electric vehicle. So, even atthe worse case scenario, we are doing better in terms of the environment. These are justsome areas on the environment that I wanted to advance with the purpose perhaps of adialogue with Stewart and all of you this evening. That at least enliven my senses andmotivate me and have gotten me to believe we can do more and better, quickly what doesthat mean, we are about to require composting, only big cities in the United States ofAmerica to do that. We gotten very serious in we can have Michael Pollan in here, whichis spectacular, he is one of my heroes in Alice waters where I put that bigÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦ rememberthat victory garden. We put a big vegetable garden in front of city hall, now you areseeing, folks in Washington DC and Michelle Obama ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å“ first lady Obama doing one, andnow you got Maria Shriver doing one up in Sacramento I remember when we put ourgarden and Willy Brown Chastised me and said, you are going to have cows and horsesnext out there. Missing the point that this was about raising the environmentalconsciousness about what we eat and where we get the food. You are going to get hometonight, and the chances are that the average plate in this maybeÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦ this certainly is not anaverage audience, but in San Francisco, the average consumed meal tonight wouldprobably have traveled some 1,400 miles to the plate. Yet 80% of everything we needis, produced within a hundred square mile radius of that Golden Grate Bridge.How does that make sense, the most vibrant agricultural region, arguably anywhere in theworld and we are freshÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦ well we are freezing things, fresh frozen sending them overseasto process to have them come back at the Marina Safeway. It makes no sensewhatsoever. And so we are really trying to challenge people about this urban ruralconnection in terms of agriculture and food, and so, we have, all new food strategies it isall part of our healthcare strategy. As you know we are the only city in the United Statesof America with a universal healthcare plan that is actually implemented for 64% ofpeople, comprehensive universal healthcare and now we are focusing on investing inpeopleÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s health as opposed to treating their sickness, which means we are focusing onwhat they eat, their wellness in their exercise, what they are drinking, and that is not justalcohol, that is big gulps in the morning, like 4-year-olds are drinking and that is why wehave this obesity numbers that came out for 4-year-olds yesterday. Which should havestopped all the presses as well. Which are of course increasing healthcare cost for all ofyou. Type II diabetes, and all of these chronic diseases because of that eating anddrinking problems.So that is another big focus in the carbon footprint associated with food and how it travelsand how it is manufactured and how it is produced. It is another area of thisenvironmental consciousness for a sustainable city, that we are also arguing for and alsoadvancing. And we are also and just I'll close and bring Stewart up, and we can talkabout all kinds of other topics that I think are pertinent to a sustainable city. But becausewe are here, I think it is important to know, we spend about 4 years on this. Five milesoff the coast of ocean beach, in a few years, you are going to have the first commercialscaled wave generation project, or generating project in California's history, the visionand ideas to get rid of those 33 polluting oil platforms, now this maybe a little audaciousbut I like it nonetheless. And replace them with wave-generating platforms and harnessmother natureÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s extraordinary energy. She has just been waiting for us, all of thismillennia, saying what is wrong with you people, you are drilling to take out things thathave been sequestered and are safe, and now you are destroying your planet, when here Iam every single day providing everything you need.Five miles off the coast wave-generating platform finally got our permit and after yearsand years of studies and we want to be the first big commercial application of that newtechnology and second, right below the Golden Gate Bridge, in fact the study show it ison the northern part this new Doppler radar strategy. Take an inverted wind farm orrather take idea of a wind farm and put it under water and now harness all the energy inthat tidal flow, think about the mouth of the Golden Gate the bay, it is relatively small,you got this great energy that comes in and out 24/7. All of that dense energy beingwasted again. You have the opportunity to do what has been done in other countriesaround the world and that is to harness that energy flow by bringing in these windturbines and they are not really wind turbines but that is kind of idea and bringing them inunderwater. So, we have been spending years on this one, this one become morecomplicated, a lot of environment concerns to be a big turbines, plankton coming in andseals and sea lions and who knows what else getting sucked up and consumed andworking through all of those issues, but we also want to be front and center on all of that.So again, those are things just for the past, and the present and I think a more sustainableand enlivening future, final point on thisÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦ this thing, the opportunity is self evidentÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦probably all of you know by now have heard of Van Jones. Van showed up, he is nowthe advisor for Obama, he started his organization called green for all, number of yearsago. He started it at the World Environment Day in 2005. He just had a separateconference, because he said, I remember him yelling and screaming at me saying, hey allyou guys look like you. I said what do you mean look like me. He said, you are allwhite, environmental movement is just too white. He did not literally say this, but heimplied them. He was not wrong, it is true, this whole environmental movement all theseyears it isÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦ certain group of folks, and he is making the case, what about all of us? Andhe held this little side meeting, he was down there, I think it wasÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦ it was in fact, Iremember it is at the Sony Metreon, it is the only room he can get. And he had thisremarkable conference, and this discussion probably about 70 people they want a hugecrowd. And he started talking about twinning the opportunity to deal with environmentaljustice, social justice broadly speaking incoming equality in which at time it grownacutely under the Bush Administration. And to start twinning the opportunities to createreal green collar jobs. And that is when Green For All and this organization really startedto take shape. And here he is now advising President Obama just a few years later wrotethis really wonderful book, which I encourage you to pick up where he really lays out ablueprint, to deal not just with one issue, the environment, not just deal with two issues,jobs and economy. But to deal with that big third, and that is locking people in to thisnew sustainable future that have been locked out of the old industrial past. And makingsure we reconcile the issue of race and relationship to environment.Four out of five toxic waste dumps primarily in African-American communities, asthmarates here we are in the 94123 this zip code asthma rates are literally 8 times higher, inthe Bayview-Hunter's Point when we are sitting here today in the same city. Where youhave two polluting power plants, now one because we shut down Bay View Hunter'sPoint plant we are still trying to work to get Potrero plant torn down. That is a seriousissue, and this is the great opportunity of this environmental movement is to twin theseissues in a substantive ways. So green collar jobs, these jobs that we talk a lot about.This is also extraordinarily important, I will just note this. When we did our solarprogram, we did it with this in mind. If you want to do solar, you get $2000 from thecity, just right off the bat. If you want to do solar and you want more money from thecity, then you have the opportunity to hire from one of our workforce training programs.And we will give you $3000, but if you wanted to even get more, hire from one of ourworkforce training programs from employees that lived in a certain zip code in SanFrancisco and we will get you in $4000.The whole idea of incentivising a focus and attention to address this issue in asubstantive way. By the way the overwhelming majority of people are doing just that.They recognize the opportunity to do the right thing, it makes a lot of sense for themdirectly as well. And remember those rebates go up to $10,000ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦ so I want you to thinkabout that. As you leave tonight, for those of you that have not put solar or your landlordhas not put solar up. Go on solarmapsf.org you could actually map your roof and we willhave all of these incentives right there at the million solar roof initiative of the state,federal tax credits, everything you need to get it done, and then you say wait a secondthere is still a gap and I am barely holding on to my job, oh you wait 30 days, you willhave the most aggressive Berkeley eat your out hat out, I love Tom Base what you havedone. You aint see nothing yet. We are about to have the most expansive strategy to paythe delta and the difference and to put it on to your taxes, or rather put it on your propertytax. Not just for solar, we are going to allow you to finance. Without a dollar out ofpocket and amortize over the life of your loans, the ability to do energy efficiency allkinds of weatherization, boiler replacements, ideal shower heads, and toilets as well as solar.This is the next very exciting part, and then linked again, those dollars in to theseworkforce training, green collar job focus, environmental justice, social justice focus,again it is part of this new narrative of interdependence and all of these issue, whichagain I think is a big part of Stewart's passion and its purpose and its foundational beliefsthat I think drive most of your passion in this room. So I hope those things, at least getyou thinking, for the purpose of conversation tonight, I am very enthusiastic and I meanthis with sincerity about the future, I think we are barely scratching the surface, I havegreat expectation that we could continue to do more and do better, scale these things, theycan be scaled, conversation has changed, people are experimenting all over the country,Sam Addams who is the new mayor of Portland just announced a electric vehicle waragainst San Francisco, which wasÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦ New York Times picked up which is great,Bloomberg stole our taxicab idea, when he converted his cabs to greencabs, we did that ayear prior, I announced it on local cable channel 26, that is probably why you did not hear it.He announced it on the Today show that is why you did. He has a got a biggerÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦ heevenÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦ he is on the cover I was taking Amtrak from New York to DC and there isBloomberg on the cover of the Amtrak Magazine and it is all about his new urban windstrategy, God is my witness, he stole that from us 3 months ago. We had a big pieceabout our urban wind taskforce and he announces he gets in the AP and in the article Isaid well what new idea does he have that we have not done. Well, it is just an idea, andthey got a 10-page spread about this brilliant visionary mayor in Bloomberg. My point inonly saying this is I am proud that he is doing it, and we are very excited that thiscompetition is taking shape in the environment and it is a very healthy competition, andapparently Sam has raised the bar in Portland, and by the way and this is my final wordStewart. Portland is particularly distressing, because Portland every single year is thenumber one sustainable city in the United States. To San Francisco, five years in a row,second runner up, every year, San Francisco number 2, Portland number 1. So we aregoing after Portland, enough of Portland, you are from Portland, enough, give us a break,we do not want to be runner up forever. But again, it is all about raising the bar andraising consciousness and this is kind of race to the top not race to the bottom. And it is avery, very good thing, and that does tie in to those 120 mayors that sign this accords.Even the mayor Tehran, we have diplomatic relationships with Tehran going back yearsago. Ironically, that these mayors are paying attention and they are holding themselvesaccountable, and they are in the frontlines of this, and that is why again, I express a lot ofhope, and a lot of optimism and I really do think the best is yet to come. So thank you allvery, very much.