Professor Ian Morison discusses time, one of the most mysterious concepts in our Universe. It is easy to describe how we define its passage and how we can make exceedingly accurate clocks but questions as to what determines the arrow of time and whether time travel is possible can tax the most brilliant minds!
Gresham Professor of Astronomy Ian Morison made his first telescope at the age of 12 with lenses given to him by his optician. Having studied Physics, Maths and Astronomy at Oxford, he became a radio astronomer at the Jodrell Bank Observatory and teaches Astronomy and Cosmology at the University of Manchester.
Over 25 years he has also taught Observational Astronomy to many hundreds of adult students in the North West of England. An active amateur optical astronomer, he is a council member and past president of the Society for Popular Astronomy in the United Kingdom.
At Jodrell Bank he was a designer of the 217 KM MERLIN array and has coordinated the Project Phoenix SETI Observations using the Lovell Radio Telescope. He contributes astronomy articles and reviews for New Scientist and Astronomy Now, and produces a monthly sky guide on the Observatory's website.
Measured or measurable period. More broadly, it is a continuum that lacks spatial dimensions. Philosophers have sought an understanding of time by focusing on the broad questions of the relation between time and the physical world and the relation between time and consciousness. Those who adopt an absolutist theory of time regard it as a kind of container within which the universe exists and change takes place, and believe that its existence and properties are independent of the physical universe. According to the rival relationist theory, time is nothing over and above change in the physical universe. Largely because of Albert Einstein, it is now held that time cannot be treated in isolation from space (seespace-time). Some argue that Einstein's theories of relativity vindicate relationist theories, others that they vindicate the absolutist theory. The primary issue concerning the relation between time and consciousness is the extent, if any, to which time or aspects of time depend on the existence of conscious beings. Events in time are normally thought of in terms of notions of past, present, and future, which some philosophers treat as mind-dependent; others believe that time is independent of perception and hold that past, present, and future are objective features of the world. See alsogeologic time, Greenwich Mean Time, standard time, Universal Time.
Time and Quantum of Light. / My opinion./
Can Time Exist Without Matter?
According to Newton the answer is “ Yes”.
According to SRT and GRT the answer is “ No”.
Who is right? Who is wrong?
What is the resolution of this apparent paradox?
There are two kinds of time:
a) the proper (individual) time and
b) the planetary time.
They are so familiar that we rarely give them thought.
Don’t we know, that time for living being is limited
and the planetary time is absolute for them ? It is.
Maybe therefore Newton declared that time is absolute.
It “ flows equably without relation to anything external”
he wrote in 1687. But Einstein had another opinion.
He wanted to know: “ Where does the conception of time
come from?”, “ What is the essence of time?”.
And to explain these questions he created two theories:
SRT and GRT and declared that time is relative, changeable.
SRT explains behavior and the proper time of light
quanta /electron. Why do I think so?
One law (postulate) of SRT says that speed of light quanta
is constant c=1. Second law ( postulate ) says no another particle
can reach this speed. So there are two incommensurable
quantities. Is it possible to bind them together? No. I was
taught at school from the first class that the incommensurable
quantities cannot be compared. The connection between these
incommensurable quantities is similar to the decision of a
problem: “What will be if the whale attacks the elephant?”
We can see whale in a ocean and elephant in a savanna,
but they never meet and fight in the same “ frame of reference”.
And the same is about light quanta and another particles.
We cannot see them together in SRT. We can meet only the
light quanta in SRT and no other particles in it.
SRT was born from Maxwell's theory and it is a continuation
of the electrodynamics’ development . The electron is a main
and single hero in the Maxwell's theory and SRT. There
isn't the Maxwell's theory / SRT without electron.
It is not correct to compare electron/ light quanta with another
particles (protons…etc) and bodies (billiard balls, satellites,
astronauts, “twins”) because they cannot produce electromagnetic
fields. The electron and the another particles are also incommensurable
quantities. They are absolutely different objects.
Every epoch has its own delusion. Maxwell and Boltzmann
tried to explain electromagnetic fields using balls, wheels,
cog-wheels, springs…etc. H. Hertz, who demonstrated the
existence of the electromagnetic waves, wrote that the
electromagnetic waves didn’t have practice use. Etc….
Now we try to compare electron/photon
ability with astronaut’s and “twins’ ” opportunities.
It is mistaken, but what to do? We do it because this is
our way of cognition:
” From vague wish to the bright thought”.
So, how SRT explains time from electron/ light quanta point of view.
When light quanta is in state of a rest its time is frozen,
and its own clock shows zero.
When photon moves with constant speed c=1
its time is also frozen, and its own clock still shows zero.
Only when photon moves with speed c>1 its zero time
changes and limited time appears. In this situation we
know photon as an electron. Photon works as an electron
and SRT and Lorentz transformations explain this process.
And when , for example, electron emits from an atom and
interacts with Vacuum all its parameters change. Its limited
time ends and its own clock shows zero again. Now it lives
in infinite/ eternal Vacuum until new incarnation, until its new
work, maybe, in an atom (molecule), or in a cell, maybe, in a blade
of grass or in a tree, maybe, in an animal or in a person.
In another words:” We are living beings until Light quanta/
Electron is present and works in our body.”
Is it true? Yes, it is true. Why?
Because W. Pauli in 1924 wrote:" Each quantum state in the atom
is not limited of two electrons, but only one electron".
It means in the atom can be only one, single electron.
The electron manages the atom. If the atom contains more
than one electron (for example – two), this atom represents
“ Siamese twins”. Save us God of having such atoms and cells.
And the living being begins its life from one, singe cell.
What I am introducing here is what ' thinking photon/ electron' exist .
I applied the quantum of light/ photon/ electron with a consciousness.
And His own consciousness is not static but can develop.
The development of conscious scale goes
" from vague wishes up to a clear thought ".
This evolution proceeds during hundred millions (billion) years.
Trying to understand “ the electrodynamics of moving bodies”
Einstein wrote that it is the result of time and space changes.
It is not exactly correct , because these changes are secondary
in SRT. And the first point of SRT is that Quantum of light changes
its spin. The former Planck/ Einstein’s spin (h) changes in Goudsmit /
Uhlenbeck's spin (h = h / 2pi), and as a result of this act all its parameters
change and the time and new space appear.
GRT explains the conditions of gravitation and the secret of
planetary time. Why do I think so?
When Einstein worked on GRT, he asked astronomers:
“ What is the average mass of matter in the Universe?”
The result was lamentable. The quantity of mass was
insignificantly small. It was impossible to keep gravitation
law with such insignificantly little mass and so, the Universe
must be “open”, endless. But what to do with the infinite
space, Einstein didn’t know. Therefore he took (from the
heaven) “ the cosmological constant” in order to “close”
the Universe. The taken mass was enough for creating the
condition of gravitation. Without “ the cosmological constant”
the Universe is endless.
In 1922 Friedman wrote, that we could not take “ the
cosmological constant” in calculation. Instead of it, it is
enough to take “time” and the Universe will be “closed”.
Friedman was correct, but why? Because “time”, by its
nature, is a limited physical quantity and, be taken in
mathematical calculation, automatically gives “closed” result.
So, the detected material mass of the
matter in the Universe is so small (the average density
of all substance in the Universe is approximately
p=10^-30 g/sm^3) that the gravitation law doesn't work.
Astronomers and astrophysicists know about this fact and
therefore (to save the gravitation law) invented new matter
a "dark matter", a new energy a “dark energy” and another
abstract objects. This “ invention” is only a result of our
mentality , which says: ” If in a theory you meet infinity it
means the theory is nonsense”. It is very hard to take that
the Universe is infinite. It is no easy matter to give up
a lifetime of habit .
On my opinion it is impossible to use GRT to Universe as
a whole. The Newton/ Einstein's gravitation laws are correct
only in the local parts of Vacuum. The Universe / Vacuum
as a whole is endless.
So, how does GRT explain time?
According to GRT the time depends on the mass
and speed it means, of moving matter.
It means that different masses and speeds can create
different time. For example, our planet Earth has its
own time but for us it is absolute.
The other planets have another mass and speed and
therefore they have their own time. This time according
to GRT is relative. But their habitants will think that their
time is absolute. But if they know GRT they will
not make this mistake.
According to SRT and GRT time is relative.
SRT says about proper/ individual time of an
electron/ light quanta.
GRT says about planetary time of a Planet..
The time cannot exist without matter and speed,
in another words, without moving matter. But
different reasons and different moving of a matter
create the proper and planetary time.
Is it possible to see the different manifestation of
time in a human being?
Here is an article “ Even the time is pressed from fear”
by Dr. Vadim Chernobrov (collaborator of MAI -
- Moscow Aviation Institute).
He wrote, that we usually think time is a constant quality.
But Einstein’s relative theory says time is relative.
Question. Is it possible to check it in our life?
Answer. Russian and foreign researches say it is
possible. The documents (secret in the past) testify
that “cataclysm of time”, “ phenomenon of time’s
perversion “,” the changes (its deceleration) of time”
often is observed by people whose profession connected
with risk: astronauts, pilots, drivers, soldiers.
The test pilot Mark Gallay wrote in his book
“The test in the sky” when his airplane was caught
with fire “ the time began to go in another scale. The time
almost stopped. Every second took ability of expansion,
and in this situation it was possible to do many things.”
He confirms that tested such feeling many times.
The test pilot Marina L. Popovich said the same,
in the dangerous, catastrophic situations “ the time
In June 1989 the soviet airplane MIG-29 crashed near
Paris, in Le Bourget airport , in the time of its air show.
The notes of “the black box” showed that during the
four (4)seconds the test pilot Anatoly Kvochur made as
many operations as in normal situation it would take some
minutes. The test pilot later said: ” the time was stretched”.
The captain N.Z.(fought in Afghanistan) remembers:
“the fly of the bullet was so beautiful that I didn’t guess
to evade from it, although I have enough time to do it”.
The sergeant V. Ch (fought in Afghanistan) told:
“ The black barrel of gun seems very big, even enormous.
Time is stopped and full silence came. And I moved slowly
a step a side and the bullet passed close to me.”
The people in a critical situation, on the border of death,
suddenly for themselves begin to see everything as in the
slow down film and in this time their speed reaction and
power increase in tens and hundreds times. And this explains:
a) why a man who escaped from wolves, can quickly reach
up the top of the naked tree,
b) an old woman took out a big trunk from her burned house,
which later two strong firemen couldn’t rise.
The speed on the curve was so fast that to keep the balance of
the car I went on other road line and flew straight at the
“forehead’ of a green mercedes. The driver of the mercedes
was in panic, in horror. He threw the wheel and closed his face
with his hands. Suddenly the time stopped and the sound disappeared
for me and I made many actions before my car kicked only the side
back door of the mercedes. It was long time ago, but writing this article
I understood better what happened.
Our computer-brain works on a dualistic basis (on two different neurons
systems): 1) usually under logic program,
2) sometimes on intuition (subconscious).
Brain of a man approximately consists of sixteen milliards neurons.
All of them form the system that manages human body.
That is why that with the work of all the sixteen milliards neurons
of brain, a man cannot catch a single impulse of his Electron, of his
Quantum of light, of his Soul:
(mass of electron is equal 10^-31 kg., charge of electron is equal 10^-19 k.)
But in that time ( critical time ) most neurons of my brain stopped
their electric pulse (time almost stopped) and my Light Quanta/Electron
in this new condition (superconductivity) had possibility to increase
my speed reaction and power on a short period of time . So, as SRT says,
the Light Quanta in different systems ( even in our brain) can show us
a different Time. The Light Quanta plays major role in the Nature,
in the Physics, in our Life.
Israel Sadovnik. Socratus.