In this exclusive Sydney lecture, Professor Eric Foner, DeWitt Clinton Professor of History at Columbia University, will trace how Americans have thought about the key concept of freedom through the course of history.
He argues that freedom has never been a single idea, but has been the source of considerable disagreement and conflict- University of Sydney
Eric Foner is an Americanhistorian. On the faculty of the Department of History at Columbia University since 1982, he writes extensively on political history, the history of freedom, the early history of the Republican Party, African American biography, Reconstruction, and historiography.
Foner is the leading contemporary historian of the post-Civil WarReconstruction period, having written Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877, winner of many prizes for history writing, and more than ten other books on the topic. In 2011, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery, Foner's most recent book, was selected as the recipient of the Pulitzer Prize, Lincoln Prize and the Bancroft Prize. Foner also won the Bancroft in 1989 for his book Reconstruction.
In 2000, he was elected president of the American Historical Association.
Freedom from arbitrary interference in one's pursuits by individuals or by government. The term is usually used in the plural. Civil liberties are protected explicitly in the constitutions of most democratic countries. (In authoritarian countries, civil liberties are often formally guaranteed in a constitution but ignored in practice.) In the U.S., civil liberties are guaranteed by the Bill of Rights and the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States. The Constitution's 13th Amendment prohibits slavery and involuntary servitude; the 14th bars the application of any law that would abridge the privileges and immunities of U.S. citizens or deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law or deny any person equal protection under the law; and the 15th guarantees the right of all U.S. citizens to vote. The related term civil right is often used to refer to one or more of these liberties or indirectly to the obligation of government to protect certain classes of people from violations of one or more of their civil liberties (e.g., the obligation to protect racial minorities from discrimination on the basis of race). In the U.S., civil rights are protected by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and subsequent legislation. See alsoAmerican Civil Liberties Union.
one can debate that the"melting pot"had its social adv. it gave boost to matters such as labour wrights,public education and social wellfair.but by the time ethnic matters controled the sceen in the name of "plurality" all thesse issues where diverted to "who gets what" causing a state of instabilty where people think in the best intrest of their own rase not their own homeland