Africa and Smart Development Policy with Stephen Hadley, Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. Carnegie President Jessica T. Mathews moderates the event.
Hadley discussed the Bush administration's efforts to promote economic growth and disease prevention in Africa and commented on the president's upcoming travels to Africa and his Smart Development Policy - Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Stephen J Hadley
Stephen J. Hadley was sworn in as Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor) on January 26, 2005. During President George W. Bush's first term, Mr. Hadley served as the Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Advisor.
Mr. Hadley served as a senior foreign and defense policy advisor to then-Governor Bush during the 2000 Presidential Campaign and worked in the Bush-Cheney Transition on the National Security Council.
Previous to this position, he was a partner in the Washington, D.C. law firm of Shea & Gardner and a principal in The Scowcroft Group, Inc., an international consulting firm.
Jessica Tuchman Mathews was appointed president of the Endowment in 1997. Her career includes posts in the executive and legislative branches of government, in management and research in the nonprofit arena, and in journalism.
She was a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations from 1993 to 1997 and served as director of the Council's Washington program. While there, she published her seminal 1997 Foreign Affairs article, "Power Shift," chosen by the editors as one of the most influential in the journal's seventy-five years.
From 1982 to 1993, she was founding vice president and director of research of the World Resources Institute, an internationally known center for policy research on environmental and natural-resource management issues.
She served on the editorial board of the Washington Post from 1980 to 1982, covering energy, environment, science, technology, arms control, health, and other issues. Later, she became a weekly columnist for the Washington Post, writing a column that appeared nationwide and in the International Herald Tribune.
From 1977 to 1979, she was director of the Office of Global Issues of the National Security Council, covering nuclear proliferation, conventional arms sales policy, chemical and biological warfare, and human rights. In 1993, she returned to government as deputy to the Undersecretary of State for Global Affairs.
Mathews is a director of Somalogic Inc. and a trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation, the Century Foundation, and the Nuclear Threat Initiative. She is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the American Philosophical Society, and the Trilateral Commission.
She has previously served on the boards of the Brookings Institution, Radcliffe College, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, the Surface Transportation Policy Project, and the Joyce Foundation, among others.
Good evening, all. My name is Jessica Mathews. IÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢mpresident of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. I know that I speak onbehalf of the whole Carnegie board, which is with us tonight, when I say how honored andhappy and pleased we are to have with us our former colleague, Steve Hadley, currentNational Security Advisor, of course, and member of the Carnegie Board until he left tobecome the deputy national security advisor all these many years ago in 2001.Steve, we understand that in advance of the presidentÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s trip to Africa, you intend totalk tonight about the importance of new partnerships with developing nations to addressthe many problems facing them from fighting disease, hunger, debt, conflict to providingeducation and building democratic government. Given the huge importance of these issuesand the recent events in Kenya, Chad, and Zimbabwe, I particularly regret that we canÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢t bejoined this evening by our newest trustee at Carnegie, Kofi Annan. But as all of you know,heÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s been in Kenya working tirelessly to achieve a peace plan between that countryÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s politicalleaders and a critical mission if there ever was one in which we wish him success. He hassent his great regrets at not being able to be with us tonight.ItÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s also fitting, of course, that you have agreed to give a talk about partnership atCarnegie. As the oldest foreign policy think tank in the world, the Endowment has made ahabit of reinventing itself as circumstances on the international scene have merited. And asglobalization has taken hold of so many aspects of our lives and a global approach hasbecome so obviously needed to tackle the major challenges, we have set out to break thetraditional think-tank mold here in Washington and to begin to work on solutions toproblems in partnership with leading scholars in and from the key regions of the world. So ayear ago this week, we announced CarnegieÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s plan to pioneer the first global think tank. Andsince then, building on our 15 years of running a very successful research operation inMoscow, we have opened offices in China, Europe, and the Middle East. So itÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s a particularpleasure on the first anniversary of that launch to be hearing, to welcome you back to theEndowment, Steve, and look forward to hearing your views on this important new set of partnerships. Thanks.Thank you, Jessica. James Gaither, thank you for yourleadership. ItÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s a pleasure to be with you this evening. For nearly a century, fellows of theCarnegie Endowment for International Peace have made contributions to our public debateon international affairs. In the 21st century, your work will continue to be vital. I appreciateyour efforts to expand your presence in other parts of the world so that Carnegie can offer atruly global perspective on the choices in front of us.As you know, next week the president and Mrs. Bush will travel to Africa. It will behis second visit to the continent since 2001 and Mrs. BushÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s fifth visit. They will travel toBenin, Tanzania, Rwanda, Ghana, and Liberia. The trip will be an opportunity todemonstrate American commitment to the people of these countries and to Africa as awhole. The trip will highlight how the United States has partnered closely with the people ofAfrica to address the challenges of disease, poverty, and security and how together we have made remarkable progress.ThereÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s now more hope in Africa and the American people can be proud that manyof our innovative programs are making a real difference. Africa is also one part of the worldwhere you can see in action the presidentÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s approach to development. And tonight IÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢d liketo describe the concepts and the principles behind that approach, how his initiatives arehaving an impact, and why this approach deserves the support of both political parties herein Washington in the years ahead.We help the people of the developing world because America is a compassionatenation. When Americans see people in need, they want to help because we believe, as anation, that every individual deserves the opportunity to reach his or her potential. As thepresident said in his State of the Union last week, building a freer, more hopeful, morecompassionate world reflects the calling of our conscience. Yet we also recognize thathelping people in the developing world is very much in our national interest. People whoare free, educated, healthy, empowered, and able to use their freedom to enhance theireconomic well-being are less likely to support terror or attacks on others.If this new century has shown us anything, it is that our own prosperity, freedom,and security are increasingly intertwined with those of less developed nations. PresidentBush believes that U.S. development assistance is central to our nationÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s national securityand foreign policy and his budgets have reflected that commitment. Since he took office, hehas more than doubled U.S. development assistance from about $10 billion in 2000 to about$23 billion in 2006. This is the largest increase in development assistance since the Marshall Plan.In his first four years in office, the president doubled our official developmentassistance for Africa. At the G8 summit in 2005, he promised to double our assistance toAfrica once again by 2010. And the presidentÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s budget request for fiscal year 2009 that wasreleased today reflects that commitment. If approved by Congress and fully implemented,this budget request will ensure that our nation keeps its promise to our international partnersand to the people of Africa.The presidentÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s approach to develop grew out of the collective wisdom our nationhas gained from decades of experience working with the people and nations of thedeveloping world. In some nations, our development assistance seemed only to subsidizecorrupt regimes while the people continued stuck in poverty. Yet in other nations, ourassistance did help strong economies and democracies emerge and helped make people moreprosperous. What accounted for the difference?The presidentÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s approach to development answers this question and reflects theselessons learned. The best way to enhance development is to invest in people: their health,their education. So this is what we are doing while encouraging governments in thedeveloping world to make the choices that enable their people to achieve a better life. Weare measuring success by the number of lives that change, not the number of dollars thatchange hands. We are using our assistance to encourage innovation and reform, not tosubsidize governments that have failed to invest in their people. We are helping nations toopen their economies to free markets and free trade so they emerge over time fromdependence upon foreign aid. And we are building relationships based on partnership, not paternalism.Our presidentÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s budget commitment for development combined with his approachto development have allowed our nation to build partnerships to help developing nationsfight many of their most pressing challenges. First, the United States is partnering withdeveloping nations to fight terrible diseases. The presidentÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s emergency plan for AIDSrelief, proposed by the president, but funded by the Congress and supported by theAmerican people, is the largest international health initiative in history ever dedicated to a single disease.PEPFAR is based on partnerships with local communities and indigenousorganizations that deliver treatment and care for those suffering from the disease andprevent its spread. PEPFAR has helped bring lifesaving treatment to more than 1.4 millionpeople around the world. The president has asked Congress to double this initialcommitment to the program with an additional $30 billion over the next five years. Thesenew funds will help bring us closer to our goal of treating 2.5 million people, preventingmore than 12 million new infections, and caring for more than 12 million people includingfive million orphans and vulnerable children.The presidentÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s malaria initiative, also with the support of the Congress, is helping tofight a disease that claims the lives of one million children under the age of five each year insub-Saharan Africa. This is a five year, 1.2 billion-dollar effort. The key to beating thedisease is fighting the mosquito, so the initiative provides insect insecticide-treated bed netsand indoor spraying as well as anti-malaria medicines. Through this initiative, U.S. taxdollars leverage private-sector support, and more than six million long-lasting insecticide-treatedmosquito nets are being distributed through public-private partnerships.The presidentÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s malaria initiative has already reached an estimated 25 million peoplein 15 African countries. Our goal is to reduce the mortality rate of this disease over fiveyears in those 15 countries by 50 percent. The United States also leads the world in itssupport for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, making the fundÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢sfounding contribution and the United States has contributed approximately $2.5 billion todate, far more than any other nation.Second, the United States is partnering with developing nations to provide basiceducation. Our Africa education initiative is providing $600 million over eight years toincrease access to quality, basic education. By 2010, this effort will have distributed over 15million textbooks, trained nearly one million teachers, and provided 550,000 scholarships for young women.Last May, President Bush launched the International Education Initiative andcommitted to provide an additional $425 million over five years to make our internationaleducation programs more effective. U.S. resources are focused on countries thatdemonstrate a strong commitment to education by investing their own resources in schoolsand teachers operating with financial transparency and adopting plans with internationalstandards. This approach will help to provide an additional four million children with accessto basic education in Ethiopia, Ghana, Honduras, Liberia, Mali, and Yemen.Third, the United States is partnering with developing nations to fight hunger.Currently, more than half of the worldÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s food assistance comes from the United States. In2007, our emergency food aid reached 23 million people in 30 countries. Last week, thepresident proposed an initiative to supplement food aid grown in the United States withcrops re-purchased from local and regional farmers. These purchases would help our nationrespond to crisis situations, but also help break the cycle of famine in developing countriesby encouraging local agriculture rather than displacing it.Fourth, the United States is partnering with developing nations to lift their burden ofdebt. For decades, many governments had to spend huge amounts of money just to makeinterest payments on their accumulated indebtedness, money they could have otherwiseinvested in their people. This debt limited the growth of developing economies and trappedmillions of people in poverty. So the president worked with our G8 partners to ease thisdebt burden. Three years ago, at Gleneagles, Scotland, the G8 nations agreed to support amultilateral debt-relief agreement that will free poor countries of up to $60 billion of debt.Last year, we built on this progress when the Inter-American Development Bank approvedanother debt-relief initiative for some of the poorest nations in the Western Hemisphere.This initiative will cancel $4.4 billion owed by five countries: Bolivia, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, and Nicaragua.Fifth, the United States is partnering with developing nations to build democraticand accountable institutions of government. To succeed in the global economy, nationsneed fair and transparent legal systems, free markets that unleash the creativity of theircitizens, banking systems that serve people at all income levels, and business climates thatwelcome foreign investment and support local entrepreneurs. The United States is helpingdeveloping nations build these and other free institutions through the Millennium Challenge Account.This program funds projects in nations that govern justly, fight corruption, invest inthe education and health of their people, and promote economic freedom. Since itsinception in 2004, the Millennium Challenge Corporation has approved compacts totalingover $5.5 billion with 16 partner countries. In Benin, the MCC compact helped reformnational policy on microfinance and helped small farmers and entrepreneurs build theirbusinesses. And in Ghana, MCC projects will increase the production of high-value cashcrops in some of GhanaÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s poorest regions and then help bring those products to regionaland international markets.Sixth, the United States is partnering with developing nations to ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å“ by expandingtrade and opening markets. In the long run, the best way to lift people out of poverty isthrough trade and investment. Open markets ignite growth, increase transparency, andstrengthen the rule of law. A recent World Bank study found that developing nations thatlowered their trade barriers in the 1990s grew three times faster than those that did not. TheUnited States opened the markets through international trade and investment agreements.These agreements establish rules such as non-discrimination, respect for privateproperty, transparent regulation, and independent dispute settlement. In 2000, the UnitedStates had free-trade agreements with three countries. Today, we have free-trade agreementsin force with 14 countries, most of which are in the developing world. We are urgingCongress to improve the free-trade agreement weÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢ve negotiated with Colombia, Panama, andSouth Korea and we are discussing bilateral investment treaties with several developingnations. These treaties would promote greater U.S. investment in these countries, encourageeconomic reform, and strengthen government accountability. The United States is alsoseeking to open markets through the Doha round of trade negotiations. Doha represents aonce-in-a-generation opportunity to help millions in the developing world rise above povertyand despair. And the president is committed to concluding an ambitious Doha round agreement this year.Finally, the United States is partnering with developing nations to address regionalconflicts and help bring peace. Peace and security are necessary foundations fordevelopment and democracy because people who fear for their safety cannot easily accessthe global market price or participate in the free institutions of democracy. So the UnitedStates is working with regional organizations and other nations to build capacity to respondto crises and conflicts across the globe. In Liberia, the United States has helped a democracyemerge from a brutal dictatorship in less than five years. We worked with our partners at theUnited Nations to impose sanctions on the Charles Taylor regime. As he fled into exile, weprovided logistics support to deploy a regional peacekeeping force to protect the innocentand establish order. We assisted the transition government and helped it hold free electionsand we strongly support the first elected female head of state in AfricaÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s history, PresidentEllen Johnson-Sirleaf, as she and the Liberian government reform their security forces,strengthen democratic institutions, rebuild their infrastructure, and connect their people to the global economy.In Africa alone, the United States has helped end conflicts in Sierra Leone, theDemocratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, and Burundi. We helped end the north-southcivil war in Sudan and we are leading international efforts to stop the genocide in Darfur.We are working with the African Union and sub-regional organizations like the EconomicCommunity of West African States to enhance their peacekeeping capabilities. The UnitedStates is committed to training 75,000 peacekeepers worldwide and we will meet that target.Some of those U.S.-trained peacekeepers are already on the ground in Darfur. And in thisway, African institutions can increasingly contribute to solving regional conflicts.AmericaÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s partnerships with developing nations are helping to make the world abetter place. We are helping to treat the sick and feed the hungry. We are helping to teachchildren and empower entrepreneurs. We are helping to open markets and strengthen goodgovernment. We are helping more people live lives of dignity and hope. The Americanpeople can be proud of what their government is doing in their name in the developing world.Our partnership model for development also offers the world an alternative to twocompeting visions for the future of the developing world. One vision is the donor-clientdynamic of decades past, a well-meaning, but ultimately flawed approach that kept too manypeople mired in poverty. Another alternative is the ideology of hatred that sees suffering asan opportunity to foment violence against the innocent and advance an agenda of oppression and despair.The president believes that America is now offering a third and more hopeful vision.He appreciates the bipartisan support in Congress for this development strategy. In thecoming years, such support will continue to be vital for the future of the developing worldand for the future of our own country. Thank you very much.