Pulitzer prize-winning reporter Carl Bernstein takes an in-depth look at the fascinating life and career of Hillary Rodham Clinton, a complex woman who helped shape her husband's Presidency and may well ascend to the office in her own right.
Carl Bernstein is an American journalist who, as a reporter for The Washington Post along with Bob Woodward, broke the story of the Watergate break-in and consequently helped bring about the resignation of US president Richard Nixon. For his role in breaking the scandal, Bernstein received many awards; his work helped earn the Post a Pulitzer Prize for Public Service in 1973.
(born Oct. 26, 1947, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) U.S. lawyer, first lady, and politician. She attended Wellesley College and Yale Law School, from which she graduated first in her class. Her early professional interests focused on family law and children's rights. In 1975 she married her Yale classmate Bill Clinton, and she became first lady of Arkansas on his election as governor in 1979. She was twice named one of America's 100 most influential lawyers by the National Law Journal. When her husband became president (1993), she wielded power and influence almost unprecedented for a first lady. As head of the Task Force on National Health Care Reform, she proposed the first national health-care program in the U.S. but saw the initiative defeated. In 2000 she was elected to the U.S. Senate from New York, thereby becoming the first wife of a president to win elective office; she was reelected in 2006. Clinton sought the Democratic presidential nomination in 2008 but lost the closely contested race to Barack Obama. In 2009 she became secretary of state in President Obama's administration.
I am a little embarrassed, because is there anybody in the United States in the country who doesn'tknow that Carl Bernstein received the Pulitzer Prize in 1973 with Bob Woodward for their investigation ofthe Watergate scandal. And we have Redwood High School kids here in even they know. Hewas a copy boy from the Washington Star on November 22nd 1963 when he took dictation fromthe Washington journalist phoning in details of the assassination of John F Kennedy. At age 28he was working a Saturday shift at the Washington Post when news came of the break-in at theWatergate hotel, the story that toppled the president. He cowrote two books about the Nixonadministration with Bob Woodward, All the President's Men and Final Date. He is currently a contributing editor atVanity Fair and was a Washington bureau chief correspondent for ABC news. His new book of course is already abest selling auto- pardon me, not autobiography. I knew I'd blow it somewhere. A bestselling biography. He worked on it for seven years, three years over his deadline, and he says itturned out my timing was pretty good. And says he used the same methods for the Hilary book ashe did on the Watergate story, knocking on doors and being a good listener. So please welcome not onlya good listener but a good speaker Carl Bernstein.This is such a wonderful book storeHe's already bought four books.Not my own. So let's have nice informal evening together. I want to tell you a little bit about thisbook about 'Life of Hilary Clinton' which might be very surprising in terms of what you know or don'tknow, we will talk a little bit about reporting, about journalism, and answer questions you might haveand sign some books and I am really want you all to read this book. I am not worried about howmany have sold, but I want you to read it, because Hilary Clinton is probably the best known woman in theworld and yet as she says herself I am a mystery. And here she is on the verge perhaps of being the nominee ofthe democratic party for President, perhaps the first woman president in the history of this countryand most of what we know about her is caricature, and that is the result largely of ourknowledge coming from misinformation and disinformation and over of a period of some 20 yearshas been propagated on the one hand by Hilary and Bill Clinton's enemies and opponents, and on the otherhand by her and Clinton's acolytes and true believers. You know the other night I used the wordacolytes somewhere, and there was a news story written about it, it went out on one of the network wires and itwas spelled ACK-O-LIGHT, You all who want to grow up and be journalists, you neverfail to be surprised in this business. "Ack-o-lights."But so much of what we know has has been distorted by these accounts both from the true believersand the enemies and Hilary Clinton herself is contributed to some of these caricature by her ownautobiographical attempts, one you she takes village to her memo or moving history not to those worksare intentionally misleading but rather they are largely political documents with specificpurposes especially Living History which is partly intended to make an easy transition into being apresidential candidate and leaving a lot of the past behind and and saying well now I haveexplained it all, but air brushed partly because she is a woman with a very guarded sense of her ownprivacy, who has been hurt and humiliated and does not like others to interpret her story and also that shevery much is someone which is very surprising for someone as religious as she is and I will talkabout her religious aspect in a minute. She is not someone really given to introspection and yet her storywhich we know from caricature perhaps, it is so compelling, so fascinating, and so different than thismythic version whether coming from enemies or acolytes.That its is really incredible that here after she has been in public life so long our picture of her isso distorted. And so what I set out to do, when I started on this book some seven seven and a half years ago,and my timing obviously turned out to be fortuitous not just in terms of when the book came out, butwhen I started. Because the book is largely based on interviewing couple of hundred people, many ofthem four, five, six, seven times, most of them are on the record and on the record because when Istarted talking to them it was just after the impeachment of Bill Clinton, just after Hillary Clinton hadstarted had decided to run for the senate, and at the time people were much more candid thanthey would be now as she edges towards the presidency, and these are the people who know her best and inevery period of her life from childhood to the present. And the reason that I decided to do the biographyof Hilary Clinton was one the fact that I- I had an awareness that there really hadn't been thekind of reporting about her that deserved to be done.So my objective here was to do what good biography, good reporting always is and that's thebest attainable version of truth, and the methodology for that is not much different you can see in All the President'sMen and as that that lovely introduction of me indicated is about a kind ofpersistence and being a good listener. I'm somebody who believes that that too many journalists are lousy listeners.My experience has been over the course of some well I was 16 when I went to work at the WashingtonStar, so now - so I am 63 now, so it's a long time, but my experience is always been thepeople really want to tell you the truth if you give them a chance and that and most journalists arenot very good listeners if they come in with a preconceived notion of what the story is and they thentry to move their questioning in that direction. Very often they are in a hurry to get the answers they thinkthey want, it will fit this preconceived notion of story and then they are out of there.My experience has been almost every story I have ever done, that my preconcieved notion has turned out to be wrong. Imean look at Watergate I mean in the first day of the break-in of in Watergate I got on the phone, Italked to to wives of some of the burglars down in Florida their wives I learned that almost all of themall of them that I talk to, their husbands had some kind of CIA connections they had done somework with CIA's so my immediate thought was, and I started looking to see how this could beconnected to CIA. It could probably this was going to be a CIA operation of some kind, I couldn'tunderstand why would this probably - of course it wasn't.But my methodology were simply to see where when I talk to the people the information will take meand and what they would say. And by being open minded I have always been surprised no matter whatthe story. Its one of the first surprises in my reporting on this book, I was sitting and havingbreakfast in a in a hotel restaurant with Donna Shalala who had been hand picked byHilary Clinton to be Bill Clinton's secretary of Health and Human Services, and Shalala said to me, youknow, I begged Bill Clinton not to appoint Hilary to be the head of healthcare. I told him that she didn'thave enough experience and that if she screwed it up he couldn't fire her. And Lloyd Bensen feltthe same way, the secretary and the treasury. So I went and talked to Lloyed Bensen and Bensen saidyes all of economic advisers, Bob Reuben, all of us thought this was a really bad idea.So right way here has been, you know, for years nobody has known that the people most concerned inthe Clinton presidency with the health care dilemma in terms of its funding, in terms of it applicationincluding Donna Shalala who was hand hand picked by Hilary for her job who had been Hilary's friendfor all these years who served on boards and neighborhood league services program, and all kinds of things.Here was this great secret and a great surprise if there had not been confidence in her in the firstplace. For this huge task that she undertaken, but Bill Clinton have more trust in her thananyone else and also what she wanted to do. And she of course was probably more responsible for theelection of Bill Clinton if you remember back in what happened in 92 campaigns which she really tookover at a certain point, and ran, than any other person.So what I am suggesting to you is that you go where these facts take you and so I decided Iwanted to do a book about Hilary Clinton right after the impeachment, because everybody involved inin this crazy tale of the impeachment which is have been diminished in measure the president ofUnited States Office. The Supreme Court which will allow the Paula Jones case to go forward on thespurious grounds that the sitting president had plenty of time to deal with a civil lawsuit, you know,outrageous decision. The special prosecutor who would be appointed in one of the things you see inthis book is the pernicious influence of the Chief Justice in United States, William Rehnquist. Andappointing this special prosecutor in picking Ken Starr for the job through his surrogate which is tosay that Rehnquist appointed the so called special delegation on Court of appeals that pick the specialprosecutor, his attitudes towards the Clintons and of course he is rather giddy presiding over Bill Clinton's trialin the senate, where the Chief Justice design his own robes for the occasion with gold flourishes on his onon the arms and he had taken his design appropriately enough from the Gilbert and Sullivan operetta.But everybody was diminished, the congress in the United States, the republicans in congress whopersuade enrichment and initiated it, most of those who were those who pushed and initiated it thehardest now gone from the congress because of their own sexual hypocrisy. The press diminishedbecause of its coverage of the Clinton years in particularly of the Lewinsky story with little or almost noattention into very with in the game on the investigation on the special prosecutor which in itself was atravesty - what are we got here somebody is stealing books, arrest that person, especially if it's my book.So but what are really interesting me was Hilary because Hilary Clinton was the only person involvedwhose stature was enhanced by what happened in the impeachment, what happened in the Lewinskyperiod in the White House. And that she had decided that the only way that the Clinton presidency andClintons legacy and her own contributions and her own life really that she had spent in service to thisjoint enterprise that she and Bill had embarked on for all these years together since they met at YaleLaw school with the only way that that could be redeemed was if she sought office herself somethingshe had never wanted to do despite all the mythology and all talk you hear about and ambition in thein a pejorative way that he might never hear about a male politician.And I think that that one of the reasons that the reviews for this book have been so extraordinaryreally humbling I must say, is because of this notion of the best attainable version and the truth and andthat if it is balanced and judicious and fair and I think most of the reviewers many of them hadsaid it's sympathetic to Hilary Clinton and at its same time pulls no punches, I think I would prefer the wordempathic in the sense that after you get through the narrative you tend I think you understand thiswoman. I had wonderful experience on the plane the other day, a guy came up to me and said look Igot to tell you my wife read your book, she hated Hilary Clinton and she says she still would nevervote for her, but now she think she understands, that's about all you can hope for it seems to meas an author.And and that that if there is ever been someone who is been difficult to understand and has given usvery little help in understanding her is Hilary Hilary Clinton. So I was fascinated by his notion that inseeking to redeem her herself, her husband's presidency, or their presidency because it was a co-presidency to a large extent, that she single handedly has brought about as we can now see in something that couldnot have been imagined can you imagine if I had said the day that I decided to do this book,that I would be in Marin county in 2007 and Hilary Clinton after you know, having started on this book in aperiod where it looked like the Clinton's presidency would be regarded in ignominy, perhaps inperpetuity, and it now both of them are on the way back to the White House perhaps in a kind ofrestoration that George W Bush who was going to campaign against Al-Gore who would win thepresidency partly by saying he was going to end the sleaze as he put it, of the Clintons pluraland it now we would be here having this discussion about this book, about a woman for the first time incharge of her own life to a degree that she never has been since she had gone to Arkansas and decided tobe with Bill Clinton. So it's a remarkable tale.And one of the first people I went to talk to was a mutual friend, and the Clintons and I have manymutual friends. And I should add that I didn't come to this project with antipathy and I didn't come toit with anything but open mindedness, but among the people who answered Hillary's mail at the whitehouse for eight years there's a group of senior citizens that did it, was my mother, who told me not adamn thing. And, but we have a lot of friends in common, the Clintons and myself. And I went to oneof them and I said I want to do this biography on Hillary Clinton. And this friend said, you know ifyou're going to really do this you have to start with her Methodism. And I said what! And I knew shewas Methodist, the person said look, religion is really the beginning of understanding Hillary Clinton.And it turns out that the keys, the foundations of Hillary Clinton's life are family and religion. Andbeginning and in terms of family it takes a weird course because her father was a sour, unfulfilled man,a martinet who verbally abused and demeaned and humiliated his wife, one of the people I spent themost time with was Betsy Johnson Evelyn, who is Hillary's closest friend from childhood, remains aterribly close friend, spent a lot of time at the White House visiting, and she is, when they were in thesixth and seventh and eighth grades together, Betsy would be one of the few friends that Hillary wouldbring home to dinner and they'd be sitting around the dinner table, Hillary and her two brothers and herfather and her mother. And her father who was extremely provocative as well as misanthropic, wouldthrow out a topic for conversation kind of like a glove on a table, usually provocative, and discussionwould begin and the brothers and father and Hillary would participate, and her mother would try to saysomething and her father would say, what do you know miss smarty-pants? What are you talkingabout? Who ever thought that you would know something about this kind of thing? And it was reallyugly. And I talked to Hillary's first boyfriend from college, Jeff Shields, who gave me some incredibleletters that Hillary had written to him and you really see a kind of romantic Hillary that you wouldnever expect to see, writing about a field of daffodils that she imagined as a cathedral. Young womanin love, remarkable letters that are quoted in the book. Jeff shields said, you know I went home to visitHillary's parents with her and the first thing that occurred to me was how did this woman, her mother,and why did her mother stay with this man who demeaned her so often and who was such a toughcustomer. So, right away in reviews have all said that this is not a psychobiography, it's not. And oneof the wonderful things that you get to do as a biographer is you lay out the story on the page and dothe narrative based on all this reporting that you've done, best attainable version of the truth, and whenyou do you start to see streams and themes and continuity in a life that you might not have even knownwere there when you first did the interviews. I mean it's sort of like what John said about writing.That writers write to find out what they really think. And when I write and when I get it down on apage, whether it's a story that Bob and I did about finally said Watergate break-in was just part of avast campaign of political espionage and sabotage conducted by the Nixon apparatus against theirdemocratic opponents, for the first time Watergate made sense, it wasn't just a little break-in. How youget to that point, you've got all this information, but as you're writing it it becomes, it's like, now ofcourse it's all done digitally, but it's like a picture used to be built. You put in, we used to call it, adeveloper, and it would come up and it would come in, start light and come into focus, and it wouldhave all these surprising elements that you didn't know were there. And you see this, and you don'thave to be a Soprano family shrink to start to see how some of the things in Hillary's childhood wouldfigure into her later life. Including her mother telling her children over and over and one of the peopleI talked to at great length is a woman named Nicole Boxer who is daughter of your senator who wasmarried to Hillary's brother Tony. And Nicole and tony lived in the White House during the Lewinskyperiod and were undergoing their own troubles. And Dorothy Rodham, Hillary's mother was alsoliving a good deal of the time at the White House. And as she had done with Hillary when Hillary wasyounger and she did with Nicole Boxer and her husband Tony Rodham, Dorothy Rodham says youdon't get divorced in this family. You work on it, you get counseling. You do whatever you can. Andthen said Dorothy Rodham had been abandoned by her own parents as a child, her parents were bothteenagers, her mother was about 16 or 17 when she was born. She'd been abandoned and sent to livekind of with these draconian set of grandparents out in California who regarded her and her sister assort of indentured servants, and had a really terrible life until she met Hugh Rodham, and Dorothy hassaid and Hillary has since written herself, children are like little boats, and when you divorce they getswamped in turbulent seas. And there were all these hints that you see early on through Hillary'sparents once the narrative is laid out as it is in A Woman In Charge of what this life is, and we also getthis first sense that I didn't realize, even until I had read the book through after it was written, of howstunning the Hillary's fear of embarrassment and humiliation is at many key points in her lifebeginning in childhood. And to the point where friends aren't brought home sometimes because ofwhat the domestic situation was like in her house and her father was somebody who kind of, he hadbeen a drill instructor in world war two and he ran the house like boot camp. He'd sit in the reclinerand give orders to the kids and he was penurious to the extreme, though he made a good deal of money,upper class, upper middle class non-professional in a suburb of Chicago, not a fancy north shoresuburb, Park Ridge, but upper middle class he had a drapery and wallpaper business. He manufacturedand sewed himself drapes, liked to buy Cadillacs and Lincolns and show the progress, the economicprogress he had made, chew tobacco and spit it out the open window, he was a rock-rib Goldwater-Taftrepublican, and Hillary was a Goldwater girl, up until, even as she went to Wellesley, she still had hercopy of Conscience of a Conservative and her, along with her Peter Pan skirts when she arrived atWellesley. But this theme of humiliation and secrets and uh, secrets, is through her life. And one ofthe great secrets Hillary finally revealed, and I think if there's a rosebud moment in her life this mightbe it, she revealed, and there are lots of hints in Living History, and the one that I took away more thananything as a giveaway was a throwaway sentence in there saying that she had failed the District ofColumbia bar exam, one sentence, and taken the Arkansas exam and passed, and that that perhaps wastelling her something, and that was when she left Washington after the impeachment of Richard Nixon,she had been on a really up and coming lawyer on the impeachment committee staff, she leftWashington where she had been interviewing for jobs in Washington law firms and followed BillClinton to Arkansas, her closest friends from law school, women particularly told her don't do it,couldn't understand why she was doing it, and she would say I'm loving it. And this is also a story of alove affair, anybody who tells you the Clinton marriage is some kind of marriage of convenience, andthat it's about all power, some such nonsense, clearly knows none of the reality of the story becausethese are two people who fell in love in law school, he has been a constant of her process for some 30years, she has been a constant of his process for 30 years, each looks at the other as the brightest star intheir constellation. And even though, I guess the headlines about my book a lot of them were about thefact that the book reveals that Bill had wanted to leave the marriage in 1989 because he thought he hadfallen in love with another woman, a business woman in Arkansas, and Hillary Clinton and BetsyWright, his chief of staff in the Arkansas years, keeper of the secrets of the presidential campaigns,Hillary wouldn't give him a pass out of the marriage. She wanted him to stay in the marriage andthey'd work at it. And eventually he decided that's what they would do. But, so this has never beensome kind of marriage of convenience. But Hillary Clinton has been throughout her life knockeddown, picked herself up, moved forward, evolved, somebody said to me that on January 20th 2001 theday that the Bushes, George W and Laura moved into the White House as the Clintons were leaving,somebody said to me who had worked with the Clintons, you know, Bill Clinton emotionally is still thesame guy that got off the boat after Oxford. You wouldn't say that about Hillary. She's somebody thathas always evolved. She's had more real life experience than Bill Clinton. She worked up in Alaskasliming fish, taking salmon guts out of fish in a canning factory one summer in college. She playedMartha in Virginia Woolf. And another very interesting thing is, there's always been this talk of,Hillary Clinton is not easily identifiable in terms of ideology, she's always rejected radicalism, and yetshe's always been fascinated by radicalism. She did her senior thesis at Wellesley on Saul Alinsky, thegreat Chicago community radical organizer. It had been under lock and key and I was able to get oneout of lock and key and read it. And amazingly, given what had always been said about there beingsome evidence of her radicalism or supposed radicalism, what she said in the thesis was that Alinsky'smethodology didn't work. And just as she had said to her boyfriend Jeff Shields in college, you can'tget anywhere politically unless you win. She thought that Alinsky's methodology was not sufficientlyfunded. It didn't have sufficient funding to really give power to the poor and that government fundingwas needed for real progress in cities if we were going to eliminate and deal with the problems ofendemic poverty in this country. Though later she said while the thesis was still under wraps, that shehad actually argued the opposite, that she was against Alinsky's campaign and that she had alwaysbeen against government funding, big government funding programs, and this gets to another aspect ofher life that I say in the last chapter that Hillary Clinton has had a difficult relationship to the truth. Butagain when you see the story of her life in context you begin to see a particularly these problems oftruth telling, you begin to see things in a little bit different context. You being to see it in the context ofan out of control prosecutor for instance who her lawyer told me you know, for two years Hillary gotup and she was terrified that she was going to be indicted. She had come to Washington, her husbandwas elected president, she was trying to do good works, and she thought she was going to be indicted.And as the lawyer said, she was not forthcoming in many ways. But you begin to see this in differentcontext. And also, almost always, the stretching or hiding of truth or context is about embarrassment.And if you go back to and particularly something like the commodities trades, I talked to Jim Blair,Diane Blair was the closest friend of Hillary's life. I talked to her, she died in 2000, wonderful woman,and I talked to her at great length and I talked to her husband Jim Blair at great length, great friend ofBill Clinton and Hillary's, Hillary was best person at their marriage, wore a tuxedo. But Jim Blair didthe commodities trading for Hillary and of course in the '92 campaign Hillary had refused to allow therelease of her tax returns to the press. And usually candidates do release it, well why was that? Well Isuppose it would have shown, in all likelihood, it would have shown this 100,000 dollar profit she hadmade on a thousand dollar investment less than a year trading cattle futures, livestock futures on littlecows yet born, to which she claimed afterwards that she had expertise. That her father taught her toread stock tables in the Chicago Tribune. Well her father had taught her to read stock tables in theChicago Tribune, but he hadn't taught her a damn thing about cattle futures. And what Jim Blairexplained to me had happened was, and it's a hilarious tale, especially after he explained it to methrough his own words, is that he, an amazing man, had gone to divinity school and refused to beordained as a southern Baptist preacher because the church didn't want black people. Had become thestate's most successful lawyer, represented the poultry interest in the state of Arkansas, but hadmoved away from the law because he had been so successful in the stock market making tens of millions ofdollars and then came this futures bonanza that he got into and he opened accounts for his friends, forhis wife, for his stepchildren, for his law partners, and as he said to me, and then I did the dumbestdamn thing I ever did in my life, I opened an account for Hillary. And what happened with this was hewas trading in huge amounts of money, and his broker was a guy named Red bone, and Red Bone wasa character who had had troubles with the SEC over the years and but Red Bone also knew that JimBlair was good for any money that might be lost on the table on day because he had so much money inplay so he didn't subject him to margin costs. Now that meant Hillary wasn't subjected to margincosts. Now you or I would have been wiped out in a day about 16 times, as would Hillary if youlooked at her account, but there were no margin costs. So again, fear of embarrassment, but in this casethe embarrassment also has political implications because Bill Clinton was running for governor,moving toward the presidency. Hillary who has given up her own career in terms of to move toArkansas, she had hoped that Bill would win a seat in congress and they would go to Washingtonwhere she could pursue a career as a child advocate lawyer, but instead she ended up practicing smalltime law in Little rock which is another embarrassment. If you look at the billing records, thoseinstruments that moved around town in Washington as if by poltergeist, what they show is that she wasdoing a kind of small time lawyering that you would see in a state capital with some conflicts ofinterest, uh, and a lot of the work was being done by a young associate. She was clearly there becauseshe could bring in accounts because her husband was the governor, it was embarrassing. And yet shealso was doing great things on behalf of children, she had saved herself, she had been appointed byJimmy Carter to head the neighborhood legal service program in this country which provides legal aidfor poor people and the republicans had tried to decimate, but again fear of embarrassment. Andwhat's so important about the other women, Bill Clinton's other women is Hillary's role. And thebook doesn't talk about who they are and sex, but what it does talk about is what it did to Hillary.Because many of us in the seventies, the early seventies and even the late sixties knew about BillClinton was that he was perhaps the greatest most dazzling young politician of our generation. ButHillary who had married him knew about as she called it, his sexual compulsions, and thosecompulsions if not contained, and if they became known and their effect became known and the spreadof them became known and not contained would render him politically unviable, untenable. Sothrough Betsy Wright, who is probably the person I spent the most time talking to on this book whohad been the chief of staff put in the job by Hillary, Uh, Hillary began to be the one who insisted thatlawyers be hired, detectives be hired, women investigated, and that these sexual compulsions and theireffect be contained and covered. Fear of embarrassment. And it became more and more consumingtask as we know. The point where I was sitting one day with Web Hubbell, there were three lawpartners who called themselves the three musketeers, Hillary, Vince Foster who as Web Hubbell toldme, Hillary and Vince Foster were closer than lovers. There's been a lot of talk if they had an affair. Iknow of no one who knows, but they were closer than lovers. And when a lawsuit was filed by theClintons enemies in Arkansas, alleging that there was a slush fund in the governor's office used toentertain women, and it inferred to five particular women had been entertained by the government,Hillary had the Rose law firm hired to represent the five women. And she and Vince foster and WebbHubbell, as Hubbell told me, sat and interrogated the five women, got their affidavits that they had nothad sexual relations with Bill Clinton, uh, imagine at a certain point what this might do emotionally toHillary Clinton. And that's the important thing. And you go back to this moment that I call theRosebud moment where she reveals in her book that she failed the D.C. bar exam. So I went back andI got the records from the District of Columbia bar and about 700 people had taken the bar that day,and she was the only Yale law school graduate, whoa, lock him up! She was the only Yale lawgraduate who had failed the bar that day out of 700. Here she is, she had gone off to Wellesley, goneto Yale law school, had been fabulously successful as a student to the point where she was celebratedin Life magazine, gave the commencement address, was on television, had been chosen by the league ofwomen voters as the spokeswoman for her generation, had gone to Yale law school and started a lawreview that was a counter law review about men using the law as a social instrument in the tradition ofThurgood Marshall and other great lawyers, and she failed the bar exam. Now lots of great lawyershave failed the bar exam the first time and gone on to become judges and perhaps justices of thesupreme court, but she never took it again. And she never told anybody. So I read this and I went toWebb Hubbell and I said did you know Hillary failed the bar exam in D.C.? He said no, that'simpossible. I said no she did. She wrote it herself in her book. And I went to Nancy Beckoveck whowas the Clintons closest friend in Yale law school and remains their closest friend from Yale LawSchool. Nancy, did you know Hillary failed the bar exam? Come on, that couldn't have happened. Iwent, no, she told nobody as far as I can tell except Bill Clinton that she failed the bar exam. Fear ofembarrassment. But that decision she never went back to take it again and she said she wanted to be inWashington and she wanted to be in a Washington law firm, that that was what she wanted to doperhaps, but she never pursued it. So, there are all these surprises in this amazing life and where youreally see her as a woman in charge is at Wellesley, where she becomes the student body president.But you don't see her in charge of much when she goes to Arkansas. And then in the senate when sheis elected, she no longer is pulling the Clinton train for both of them, then you see again her becominga woman in charge. And I'm leaving out huge parts of the story, but Doris Goodwin told me how theelection of the Newt Gingrich congress in 1994 is largely the result of the failure of health care and theperception of some people in this country of ethical pall in the Clinton White House that Hillary wasresponsible for they believe, and this is a tectonic shift in our politics. So here you have her thenbecoming damaged goods really for the next four years in the White House. Yet she emerges from theimpeachment runs for the senate and for the first time in her life since Wellesley her friends see a kindof self confidence and contentedness that I think you see in her life now. Her self assurance, sense ofhumor, somebody who is one of the top three or four aides to both Bill and Hillary Clinton in the WhiteHouse said to me in the White House years that you know, she was, he thought that she had alwaysbeen an angry person. Never content. You wouldn't say that today. How did that happen? And thetale these last years had also a fascinating one. So what I'm trying to get at is I want you to read thisbook! You don't like it, I'll give you your money back. Serious. You know why, we need to knowwho this person is. You need to know, if we had had a real biography of George Bush in the year 2000I don't think he'd be president. If we are going to knowingly and meaningfully debate who thiswoman is and whether she should be president, and if you are going to vote for or against her, youought to have, it ought to be about your values weighed against who she is and what her life has beenand what's real and what's not, and that's what this book is and that's what the best attainable versionof the truth is about. So I really want you to read this book, I'm going to answer some questions for afew minutes, then I gather the drill here is I'll sit up here and sign your books, and I hope each of youcomes up here and also you might take a look at my website, carlbernstein.com, there's some piecesI've written on it about the Bush and the Nixon administrations, and the true catastrophe of thispresidency and how the system has failed in the Bush years the way it did not do in the Nixon years.But take a look at it, but get this book and what questions might you have, thank you.