City Planet: How Urbanization Will Drive Innovation with Stewart Brand.
Over the past four decades, invincible rabble-rouser Stewart Brand has spent time anticipating cultural revolutions and launching a medley of new ideas, movements, organizations, and communities. In the process, he has turned conventional thinking upside down. Today, Brand spends considerable time talking about the "city planet," a term used to describe the expeditious growth of cities.
By the middle of this century, 80 percent of the world population will be urbanized changing everything from economics to the environment and global population. Brand argues that these new "squatter cities," though impoverished and seemingly chaotic, will incubate untapped human ingenuity.
Stewart Brand is co-founder and president of The Long Now Foundation and co-founder of Global Business Network. He created and edited the Whole Earth Catalog (National Book Award), and co-founded the Hackers Conference and The WELL. His books include The Clock of the Long Now; How Buildings Learn; and The Media Lab. His most recent book, titled Whole Earth Discipline, is published by Viking in the US and Atlantic in the UK.
I am Bill Grant with the Environment and Natural Resources Forum here at theCommonWealth Club. And I want to welcome you to the night's event with StewartBrand. This event is cosponsored by INFORUM a division of a club for people in the20's and 30's. Over the past 4 decades invincible rabble-rouser Stewart Brand has spenttime anticipating cultural revolutions and launching a medley of new ideas, movements,organizations, and communities. He is the founder and publisher of "The Whole EarthCatalog", cofounder of "The Well" and founder of "The Long Now Foundation" amongother ventures. In the process, he has turned conventional thinking upside down. Today,Brand spends considerable time talking about the "City Planet" a term used to describethe eventual urbanization of the world and what the implication will be for humaninnovation. Stewart.Thank you. How is our sound, is that okay, raise your hand if there is a problem. ReallyI am going to talk cities, mostly cities growing on now. But the good way to understandcities is to go back to the basics.We need the sound up quite a lot higher.Ladies and gentlemen you've just witnessed history. That is in fact the history of cities.Cities are constantly training themselves over and constantly renewing themselves. I amgoing to make a slight switch in my program here so that I can see my notes, this we'venewering on, and that is now which be the case turn off newering and now lets see if allthis going to be well. Oh its trying isn't it, sorry about this. You know problem is settingthis up at the very beginning, so we are seeing a bit of that now. Okay that's lookingbetter, that's going to take minute to, fine material here.Okay, so these are the oldest things around, the way you find all the city in the mid eastdoes you look for a flat top mountain and that mountain was not there before the city was,the mountain was made by the city. They call them Tellos in that part of the world. Andif you look in one of it tells Jerko, you find basically the oldest continuously inhabitantcity on the world on the order of 20,000 years. Oh my goodness, we've lost the scope ofhe image again. I will go back to mirroring and try to remember what we are talking abouthere. Now here is a weird misfit between the computer and the, bad again how did youdo that? You know what this is very mysterious. Yes here is an illusion problem and itkeeps loosing its proper frame reference and we had it for a while and it lost itself.Anyway inside the Tello Jericho, so we go back in this archaeologies there is thisamazing thing, from the very beginning of Jericho there is a stub of a tower, that's, thestub is 30 feet highest, 30 feet across, nobody has a faintest idea what they were doing.But this is a typical city activity and could say that many bigets later this thing beget theTransamerica Pyramid among the other city buildings. It's the case that cities, when theylast well, last very well, Jerusalem has been an important city for over 2000 years and itsbeen concurred, this happens to be an illustration of about 6 over the burnings of the city.Is been destroyed 36 times has been running by practically every religion in the world.And is an important city now as it was then, that keeps happening. This happens to be acase of rapid physical turnover of Boston where you see that the circle on the left showsThe Old South Church, same circle on the right shows The Old South Church. That's theonly building that lasted over that period of the time. All the others are new buildings.Streets stay the same but this is typical turnover in the cities, they renew their fabrictotally about every 50 years in Europe, probably faster than that year and certainly fasterthan that in the developing world.So let's get to what's going in the developing world. What you have now everywhere isa huge transitions, basically the rural population is dropping and the Urban population issky rocketing. So just now this year according to UN figures getting to 50% Urban in theworld. Just 200 years ago its 3% Urban, a 100 years ago it was 14%, its expected to goup to 61% by 2030 and nobody knows by the middle or end of the century but chancesare to level of it about 80%. That's typically what developed nations do. Because thepattern is the developed countries are the ones that have gone urban first as you can seeby 1950, they were already 50% urban and the less developed countries are coming alongpretty down quickly, in fact much more rapidly than the developed countries did. And sothe urbanization that we are used to was pretty dramatic anyway, that's a way moredramatic now elsewhere in the world.Now here is a thing I just picked up from the Internet the other day and is showing whathappened over the last 50 years of urbanization. Each of these circles is a city of 5million and they are increasing allover the world. You can that South Asia and China isgrowing rapidly, Latin America started early and got very big very fast. This is alsosomething I found recently, cities are famously urbane, famously rural cities and this is ameasure of that, you've got the purple on this here are the cities with the million or moreforeign born in them. And the green dots are the cities with 500,000 or more foreignborn in them. When you go to a big city and you hear lots of languages and see lots ofdifferent kinds of people, that let you know you are in the, a big and important city.Big and important cities are pretty much, how we think about the history of any particulartime. And the history that we are most used to are just guided by the dominant cities of100 years ago London, New York, Paris, Berlin, Chicago, Vietnam, Tokyo interestingly.But you look 50 years later by the middle of the century it was already starting to shift.And then you know this by the way that all the cities have grown double basically in that50 years. The next 50 years they tripled from what they were in 1950, so they were sixtimes bigger than at the beginning of the century and you will notice there is a completelydifferent makeup, now if you call out the cities that are from the developing world in red,that's what you see. And if you expand out say another to 2015 this is the expectation ofwhat will be the dominant cities then, Tokyo with 36 million, Mumbai in the over 22million et cetera. And as far as who is in what used to be called the West and now theThis pattern is actually little bit familiar, if you go back a 1000 years these were theNorth, pretty much all you have left is New York.dominant cities a 1000 years ago. Cordova in Spain, Kaifeng in China and so on down theline. Who is the West then, you have to bend it, you could see there maybe Cordovaand Constantinople. In other words the rise of the west is over, this whole thing of Europeand North America dominating history with its cities is basically passed changed theworld and we are now into something much more medieval feeling.The next few decades this is a map which is showing the circles in the red, are showingwhere the expected growth is and you have to see, see it's in the south. This is a bigevent, demographics is destiny, we say in the futures business and right now 1.3 millionnew people in cities every week, some of them are being born there, most of them aremoving there. Added up at 70 million a year, its not just this year, not just this decades,its several decades in the past and everybody expects it to be several decades in thefuture. This is a huge event going on around us.One of the things that's driving in and that it drives back is the whole question ofglobalization. Basically nations are softened and cities are strengthened by globalization.And even NGO's now grow increasingly straight to the big cities where the need arewhere they can efficiently prevail what they have to offer. The difference is that nationsare defined very much by boundaries and cities are defined very much by their economicactivity which is like I know it's like a center. And so the planet that I grow up thinkingabout was one it was pretty much defined by its national boundaries. Then we had thepower program and then we started to see the world this way where the boundariesdropped away. And then with military satellite photography you got what they city lookslike on the dark side and the planet looks like, it looks like the city. You see the citiesgrowing right back at the start and that's the shape of civilization now. Actually youcould do one more transition and say how it looks from the perspective of the internet.This is one of the many maps that the internet established to be a appearing map thatshows very strong connections between main frames in the connectivity and appearingbetween bottom right triangle there is between Europe and North America and somewhatbetween North America and Asia. Not much connection between Asia and Europe yetbut its building fast. And so for the time being the North America is the center of theinternet world but that's probably temporary.Important thing to realize that I haven't caught on to until I started looking into this is, thecities have always been in population sinks. And there is a reason for that basically its,the more kids you have when you live in a country the better its insurance, they can work,high school, its about a million dollars. The equivalence of that are the same of lowernot much else do and that's what people have lots of children. Once they get in town,they get to the situation that any urban American has now which is when you are thinkingabout having a child it's a choice of what, would you whether have a children or a milliondollars and the time to enjoy it. Because that's actually probably a low figure on betweenlost wages and the share of cost, this is not college, this is just getting a kid up throughhigh school, its about a million dollars. The equivalence of that are the same of lowerfigures elsewhere in the world, so people get to town and the replacement birth rate is 2.1children per women.Over the last decades rapidly now the birth rate has people moved to the cities, womenmoving to the cities, get liberated decide they want to have fewer kids and educate them,knew they've all got jobs and they are running various organizations. Their birth rategoes right down to 2.1 replacement and then to the demographers astonishment, keep right ondropping and so in parts the world now like in the developed world in Italy, Spain,Germany certainly Russia, certainly Japan. Italy I think the replacement, the birth rate isnow 1.3 children per women. That's radical, but among the other things it means aproblem that we use to care about rightly, the world population. That's bomb has beendiffused as we speak and not for any of the reasons we expect, it is basically urbanizationwhich is driving them. So we get to 8 or 9 billion over the next couple of decades. And bythen it will be slowing, its already slowing conspicuously, deliberately going off andalready Russia and Japan are loosing total population and lot of people where followingthat direction. So there is a very good book called "The Empty Cradle" by PhillipLongman and this is one slide that I borrowed. This is the UN projection, one of themoderates ones suggest that the world fertility rate stabilize at 1.85 children per women by2300 will be back again to two point something billion we had in 1960. But the fertilityrate in developed world already is down to 1.56. So we maybe looking at a populationproblem that is the opposite of one that we've been experiencing for last few decades.We maybe looking at serious economic dislocations caused by population plummeting inthis century. Because the next 2 billion people that are coming along are almost all incities and those are the ones who are busy and not having a lot of kids.This also means that there is some pretty interesting demographic thing going on with agepyramids and so this is the empty cradle we are running out of bambinos is the Italy andbabies everywhere else. And one more old folks, so Florida may well be the fore runnerof North America and lots of other places increasingly looking like that. Even Mexico isaging faster than the US and so you could see a reversal of, you may have to sell ourfence to them at some point because they will be in greater need of young employeesfrom here than we are from there. So the next 30 years what you are seeing is thesemegacities and hypercities in the south, they are full of young people, that is where thelast part of the population momentum as its called as playing out the last new 2 billionbabies are growing up there. So new cities full of young people and in Europe and NorthAmerica and elsewhere in the north old cities full of old people. In any case they aremoving; people are moving to the cities and away from the country side which meanscountry side itself emptying now and there will be more visitor than lived in.I wanted to give a brief kind of review on how I think civilization works. My notion isthat a good way to think about any robust dynamic system is to take it apart in terms ofpiece layering of it. Some parts move very quickly, some parts move slowly, some partswould move really slowly. And one way to think about the healthy civilization is tomove in the slowest parts, nature, climate change, biodiversity change things like that upthrough culture, religion, language groups which move by centuries sometimesmillennium. Governance rather than government which changes pretty slowly upthrough the infrastructure of 5 year plans and 60 years buildings and so on, rapidcommerce and even rapid fashion in art. An example of that breaking is here if you lookwhat happened earthquake in Turkey back in 1999, the quicker building codes in this partof Turkey but the commercial interest we are able to buy off building inspectors andbasically put governance at the rate of commerce and not be able to think for ahead, notbe able to think infrastructurally and so another earthquake came along and this buildingwere not ready for and they came down and killed lot of people. Now its interesting inthis image is what is the strongest looking building in there? It's the mosque, here is anorganization, its 1200 years old and apparently they know about earthquakes. And thebuilding seems to know about these long terms natural events. I got this image fromNational Geographic and okay, that's pretty cute, makes your point but you know thathappened anywhere else. Well if you go to Sumatra, right after the earthquake andtsunami there this image was one, you say okay fine, good one. Lets fly the helicopteraround little bit, you see anything else like that.There are some parts of our culture, in this case building which actually are aware ofnatural system timeframes and respond well to them and interact well with them andthat's probably the way on the civilization. So a way to think about these kinds ofdiagrams is that the fast parts are doing learning and proposing, they are observing theshocks, commerce, is always trying new stuff. Most businesses go out of business,nobody cares. The things that are remembering, the libraries and codes and regulations,they are integrating a lot of stuff, they are making sense of the shocks, they are ready forthe next one. Their focus is on continuity whereas this fast ones fashion is constantlytelling you what's out of fashion, we got to get rid of it. And unfortunately here or not, Idon't know, keeps me on business, most of our newspapers and magazines and web stuffis focusing on the fast moving stuffs, you know this weeks news, today's news is 5minutes news, political cycle is driven by that which maybe too bad because the real juiceis in the slow stuff. That's the power, that's the culture, that's the governance, that's theinfrastructure. And we are trying to figure out how to get our political process back intoengaging those where the power really is.Now few years ago I did a book called how building is learn and I keep getting ask to doa talk on how cities learn, so I felt okay well, maybe I will, how can I think about that,maybe I can use that diagram of civilization and figure out how to change it so that it willwork for cities. So I looked into what cities really are and there are a lot of books withtitles like this, basically Civitas citizen, civilization cities, it's all a same word. And sowhen you look back at the history of the cities starting for us with Athens and the citiesstayed and then on up to the city state of Florence in the 14th century and then Venice andcontemporary city state in Singapore, cities have often been more dominate than thenations even the think off and they are often the ones that drove history and we would saythat was were civilization was happening. So I wanted saying okay, since cities andcivilizations are close enough I can use the same diagram to talk about how cities learn,except that the thing that the whole idea of the hot New York when the cities move really,really quickly and that's parts of their function, my suggestion is it that cities basicallydistorted this diagram to emphasize the fast stuff, this is where fashion is going on, this iswhere commerce is jamming and we keep not nature at a certain distance. And as aprocess then the, what the cities are doing is teaching the society around them.Okay, here is a classic case, San Francisco bay area.This is not a down story. Little bit of cable car is down there. It's an up story, arapid growth is what cities do and for last at least we think its pretty much okay and howcan we say its not okay somewhere else.That's my friend Lou talking about where are the people came from to moving to SanFrancisco and Chicago and Seattle and Los Angeles. Phoenix and all other places havebeen growing like mad, the American country side in emptying out and where they aregoing is an interesting concept referring to this make a plenary, we're here in NorCal,we got three major ones on the west coast south land and Cascadian and trans out if youoverlap the inner states and these things, you get a sense of how there majorcongregations came to pass, this is the urban landscape of North America. The NorthAmerica is a time event, or here is where the action is, all over the world here in Togo,Africa, the countryside is emptying out, the villages are emptying out in South Africa, inSaudi, in Oman, in Syria and Turkey. Central Russia when the central economycollapsed a whole lot of the subsidiary cities are in the middle for the Soviet Union arebasically emptied out right away. The same thing happened in East Germany. Spain hasempty places, Newfoundland, you can't tell by the bright buildings but there is nobody inthem. Likewise in the fair islands, Bolivia, China 300 million people move from thecountry side to the cities in the last 40 or 50 years, they expect another 300 million peopleto move from the country side to the cities. And so you are seeing this all over china.What's going on, what converged me on this was a statement I heard 8 years ago, in thevillage all there is for a women is to obey her husband and family elder, pound grain, andsing. If she moves to town she can get a job, start a business and get education for herchildren. Her independence goes up and her traditional constrains go down, this wasKavita Ramdas, what's just south here and global funding for women. Here is theunromantic truth of life in the country especially in the developing world. It is rough, itis dangerous, it is unpaid, it is fragile, and will people get a chance to move somewhereelse and they go and visit their uncle in town and they see the things were exciting andactually get paid for you work there, you're a lot freer than you were in the village, youare lot more private, its actually safer, its not banded in the same sense there is notvulnerability to weather, those of the things and you got a chance to improve your life.So people move to city, lucky ones go to Shanghai, most folks go to places like this,squatter cities or like this Hosinia and Rio. This happens to be a book I recommend toyou called "Shadow Cities", "A Billion Squatters", "A New Urban World" by RobertNeuwirth. And its part of what put me on to the track of all of this, so just recommendfew other books I mentioned Phillip Longman's "The Empty Cradle", there is a good oneon Mumbai called "Maximum City" and the fantastic one in Mumbai which is a novel onthe lower right there "Shantaram" by Gregory David Roberts. The one on the lower left Ijust added, cell phones are absolutely transforming the urban developing world, they aredoing things with it far beyond Japanese school girls, far beyond anybody else they haveturned their self in the ATM machines making cash, they are standing in job lines on theircell phones, they are absolutely in turbine innovation, if you want to see what's going ongo to the squatter cities. And then the one that all corporations read is C. K Prahalad'sthe fortune at the bottom of the pyramid.Okay, we will take a quick slide show of some of these places where billion people live,Turkey has some, Cairo, this is, its not like the stop being esthetic when they get to theseplaces, in fact it probably increase. Of course there are satellite dishes everywhere; this isthe famous, now famous Kibera, a million strong squatter city, right outside Nairobi. Alot's of action there. This is typical squatter city Favela in Rio, all of those buildings arereally good, this is a whole squatter high raise city and in fact got a couple of citations onthis, if you add up the aggregate of all this squatter buildings going on squatters are thedominant city builders in the world today, decade after decade this where the physicalaction is and as well as everything else. And what you see is they gradually go from a(indiscernible) the paper return to motor and then they keep on building motor higher andhigher. They have busy streets they have markets, they have schools, they haveeverything going on them, these are the cities. They are often on foot cities, cell phonecities because they don't have their own infrastructure they steal it, in Latin Americacalled Gotos guys go out and just basically grabbing electricity and waters, it going by,string it up through these things, hook it into the various building where they live andthat's the nature of infrastructure. Places like Caracas, Venezuella this is a slide Iborrowed AES, that is 4 people die a month from electrocution looking these lamp cordstogether and so corporation is doing a process of figuring out how these people can gofrom being. They think they want, that these are privates who want to be customers, inthe right. So one of the transitions it's going on with the government help, corporate helpand NGO help, is going from stolen electricity and water to cheep electricity and water.Economic are very strange, Mumbai absolutely smothered by slums, you think would bethe dead weight economically. But just in the formal economy its one sixth of India'sgross domestic product, never mind what's going on the informal economy down there in thestreet, which is you see look medieval, feel medieval but not dark age at all, this isrenaissance stuff. Remember the German phrase that came out of the residence andrenaissance was the style of the market fry. See here makes it free and that's what peopledoing when they moved to these places and they are having renaissance. I showed placeslike was Kibera was huge slum by next to the city but in fact the slums are all meshed right in.And so the informal economy of the lower part of these pictures is smack right up againstthe formal economy and is making possible to large extent. So here is Dhaka, the slumclusters are scattered all over and they are completely blended into the whole operationand there is a lot of change going there. And one of the things it goes on is you get placeslike this and then something political happens and they tear it all down. There is a lot of thisgoing on Zimbabwe. And sometimes it's understandable and justified and they get somebetter places to live, but often it's just a horrible destructive thing to do. So squatters careabout more than anything else is security of tenure, that's what the UN calls it, but they can stayplease.Location is huge, there is not much transportation, so they want to be able top walk towork and if they cant walk to work in the formal economy they will create work in theirown world, water is a big event, sanitation is a big event, if they is any seriouspandemics, people are so dense, 6 people who were roman some of these places, youcould have your real runaway situation. Electricity they will steal and protection fromcrime often from people outside the slum, who rid them off because they don't havepolice protection. Now we often go to these places and think oh gosh, what they reallyneed is housing and since our idealistic architect comes in and get some NGO money andworks something out with the government, builds a wonderful cheep high raise for thepeople there and instantly becomes the worst part of the slum. Because nobody owns it,nobody cares about it, its not incrementally improving; it's just a dead loss. Phoneservice, thanks to cell phones, they are now; you can get a cell phone, new cell phone for$10 and most of these places it is so crucial that everybody gets one and so more thanhalf humanity has cell phone connectivity now. Unemployment you look at some figuresalthough was people in the, so bad they are unemployed, well completely employed isjust in the informal economy, which doesn't count. And so the children are working, theold folks are working. Starvation which is a great problem in the country side, the citiesdo not have that any more. And thanks to NGO's, thanks to lots of things again in thecountry side you can't get medical care but in town you can. Sometime the governmenthelps and say you can take a place like Indore and they worked out a program of gettinghelp from the people lived there to do some of the infrastructure construction themselves,they got sort of class ideas from doing that and turned what had been the slum part of thecity into now considered very popular part of the city. And the main thing is going on inplaces like that, is the education for kids.This is the future, education is having, it's often a mom and pop kind of stuff, but itseducation and it's happening for the children of the building in the squatter cities. Welook at these places and look at that street in Mumbai, what's going on there. Wellbasically everything is going on there, everything you would find on Market Streetonly compressed in on forth and including, of course an internet cafe and all the rest of it.The informal economy is been very little studies yet. But what you've got is a lot ofdifferent ways, you go to the slums and you think, oh gosh these are poor people, theydon't have money, there is quite a lot of money in the slums. It's coming from peoplerenting stuff to each other, building stuff for each other, employing each other like man,providing all sorts of services and then the witness coming in from illegal workers andsometimes legal workers overseas. One rough guess in developing countries, this 60% ofthe employment is in the informal economy, we don't have number on, we are guessing.And so what that means is the economic theory has not caught up with the reality of theworld just now, is very much like dark energy and physics where it always says okay theuniverse is now expanding, its accelerating, we don't understand why this is, we call itsomething constant or the dark energy and we don't know what it is but its huge and itsaccelerating, its expanding, that's the informal economy.So you it all over, this happens to be in the famous huge slum in Mumbai called Dharaviand you know you see everything cutting to people making matrices out of cloth scrapson the lower right there, the huge laundry area where the laundry is done for the entirecity and economically very, very busy. Even in Kibera people are working, people areselling stuff to each other and to the formal economy. It stinks, now you can see this andoh gosh that's pretty great, a lot happening there. If you go there its rough, its smellsawful, but people are smiling, they are doing lots of stuff, they are not a populationcrushed by poverty there, population busy getting out of poverty as fast as they can, ittakes a while but they are doing it. And you see things like this; they are taking phone,possibilities of phones and moving them in all directions. This is a picture from Jan Chipchase;she has taken in Delhi, where there is an entire street where you know if we break ourcell phone that's pretty much here we throw away. There are broken cell phones,everybody know how to repair every kind of cell phone there is, down at the chiplevel. And so that's why you can get cell phones for $10 in these places. And thenpeople find various ways to share them and they are moving the chips in and out andturning them into money and so on and this happens to be one of Jan Chipchase's photographs.He has gotten to the point where peoples, street addresses as their cell phone number.They are way ahead of us and these are folks who live in cyber space physically.So there is a lot of action there and especially look at the lady on the right with, the mainevent I think that's going on is when people move to the city but women get liberated.As Kebede Ramadoss pointed out this is a major event for them and so the women arerunning things, they are ones who get the micr loans, in Kenya legally only women canget these kinds of loans because they are the reliable ones, they form these credits circlesand they are the ones who can, will pay it back. In Some countries it's illegal for awoman to own property, but they are in fact the best keepers of property. So a billionpeople and they are in motion and they are being joined, 1 to 2 billion more are expectedin these squatter cities. This event is not even beginning to be over. These places arewhere else so much action is because I think they are doing exactly what we did in theSan Francisco in 1840's and 50's, we started as a shantytown. They are generating theirown economy, they are organizing their own situation, they are building incrementallywhich means great debt activity. They are providing support for each other in terms ofnot the tribe, of the nuclear family that collects in town and by neighborhoods. And sincegovernments are not stepping up, the religious groups are something like 10% ofhumanity is Pentecostal Christian now and they are taking care of business and theIslamic countries is Islamizes, places like Morocco and Shivaji culton places likeMumbai. The religious groups are taking care of business, this is a necessary missionary,these are those many are, its typically local groups.So besides being population sinks, cities are wealth creators, they all happy on what theydo and as the result of this new city action this is where billions of people right now arebusy climbing out of property, all poverty and not via property, its via this little thing.And so there is a lot of transformation and all the horror and prime and every other thinggoes on with this process, I mean really is to Keynesian, this is London in the 1840's, itstough, but people are raising up and they are being inventive as hell and one of thethings we can do for interest in innovation is to pay close attention. As aenvironmentalist I am interested in cities anyway is green events because they are sodense, but if you want density go to Mumbai, we've got a million people in a square mile,obviously using minimal amounts of material and energy that recycling everything andthey coming up with new ideas, I will give a local example of that. The whole notion ofurbanism rose out of my neighborhood, which is just across the bay, the Sausolito house boat area,like all, such places we have our own music. Otis Redding wrote "Sittin' by the Dock of the Bay" inthe house boat community in Sausalito. Now (inaudible) right there in a tug boat is mywife and for a long time a couple of years our neighbor on the South dark was PeterCalthur. Peter had been a various neighborhoods in San Francisco trying to make themwork as neighborhoods, failing and failing and failing and he gave up and came and livedon the dock and realized that there actually was a community there priorly becauseeverybody saw each other face to face walking up and down the dock. And so hedeveloped the idea Walkable Communities and rapid transit served WalkableCommunities and so one whole wing of urbanism came out of Peter's experience with thelocal squatter city in the bay area. And so he is making paces to have the calm of thedock and then where people live with relatively high density and mixed use, we havemixed use in Sausalito because we didn't take coding serious, 400 house boards invadedin the 50's and 60's and then only later got gradually legalized and gentrified the typicalsequence that goes on was squatter cities.I think there is something missing from the studies that are being made of the so calledecological foot print. And its this, that when looking at the ecological foot print of citiesand worrying about how big it is and how to make it smaller and so on and that's great,but I don't think people are necessarily looking at it and contrast you how people aresitting on the foot print they make when they are living in the country side, drivingaround, using a lot of material, typically I think its not just suburbs that are relativelyexpensive but a lot of the way out there in the country side folks are keeping a larger footprint and they need to in that, maybe one of the reasons they are moving into the city,now lot of necessarily good will to the environment but because they wanted to be in amore economically dense action and part of that is a kind of environmental efficiency.When the people move out of the countryside, the natural systems move back, in thedeveloping world what are replaced with shrubs and trees are being cut for firewood,people move why those this come back, places where they are killing wild life as bushmeat, the people move away the wild life's comes back. And so I think that there aresome prospects here that we can see more about. So that the, sort of summation is thatcities are transformative and transformative for the individual especially for women,families develop of the process of having shared income from the variety of people in thefamily at various times. They get the advantages of fewer children and more education,to the society where this is happening, you are more wealth handling, your participationin the globalization in the world city, there is lower population pressure, thanks to thisand lower environmental impact, what drives all this? People are not moving to townbecause they are being asked to, in fact they are usually being told not to in most of thedeveloping world. Don't come here we can't take care of you, go back where, was youwhere and bother us anymore. Was driving then into town is the chance to get paid, toget a job, get some opportunity, get some education for the kids, to get out the staticsituation therein in the countryside. They see the actions in town and the bright lightsand they go to the buried lights in the right to.So in terms of the green perspective on this is their environmental strategy, I think thefirst thing we need to do is get more sense of what's really going on, pay attention to it ,collect the data and then do a couple of things. One would be to go out and increasinglypreserve and prepare the natural systems in the now empty countryside, because peoplewho have come back, I mean only visit but those start making impact again and what youwant to start taking advantage of this time to protect it. And this is also because of all ofthis huge transition in the cities, even in the developed world like here this is the chanceto use some of this wealth as being generated to make the cities themselves really greenand really humane. And so you can start to see things like this. That's happens to be inNew Zealand. I am going to give the last word to my friend Branny now, who has someperspective on all this.